The land surface emissivity (LSE) in the MYD21 product contains the effects of viewing zenith angle. The influence of the angular variation of LSE on the surface upwelling longwave radiation (SULR) estimation is still unexplored at the satellite scale. We performed statistical analyses of MYD21 emissivity retrievals over different land surface types for three longwave bands centred around 8.55 μm (Band 29), 11 μm (Band 31) and 12 μm (Band 32), respectively. A look-up table was generated to describe the angular variations for both single-band and broadband emissivities. The results showed that the angular variation of directional emissivity in Band 29 could reach up to 0.03, but was <0.01 for Bands 31 and 32. The angular variation in broadband emissivity was intermediate to that for individual bands. In all cases, the directional emissivity was greatest and symmetric around nadir. By integrating the directional broadband emissivity, the influence of angular variation of the LSE on estimated SULR was quantified using simulation and measurements at seven stations from the US surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD). The difference between the directional and integrated hemispheric broadband emissivity was within 0.01. As a result, the influence of angular variation of LSE on the SULR estimation was modest. For the SURFRAD stations, the differences of root-mean-square error (RMSE) before and after considering the angular variation of LSE were generally <1 W m−2. We conclude that the angular variation of broadband emissivity is not pronounced because of the small linear weight for Band 29 in the calculation of broadband emissivity. Ignoring the anisotropy of emissivity does not introduce large errors in SULR estimation generally.
- Angular variation