Direct addition of flavors, including taste and flavor modifiers

Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens, Samuel M. Cohen, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Shoji Fukushima, Nigel J. Gooderham, F.P. Guengerich, Stephen S. Hecht, Thomas J. Rosol, Matthew J. Linman, Christie L. Harman, Sean V. Taylor

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


The addition of flavorings to food and beverages provides practically unlimited opportunities for innovation, for maintaining and enhancing palatability, and is one essential element of a stable supply of nutritious consumer products. A safety evaluation by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) Expert Panel provides a pathway for flavor producers and users to achieve regulatory authority to use for substances under the conditions of intended use as a flavoring. This chapter describes the factors that contribute to the safety assessment process that is conducted by the Expert Panel, and provides examples of specific flavorings and types of flavorings that are considered. The chapter also describes future issues and opportunities likely to be encountered within the context of the FEMA generally recognized as safe assessment of flavorings.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPresent Knowledge in Food Safety
Subtitle of host publicationA Risk-Based Approach through the Food Chain
EditorsM.E. Knowles, L.E. Anelich, A.R. Boobis, B. Popping
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9780128194706
ISBN (Print)9780128231548
Publication statusPublished - 14 Oct 2022


  • exposure
  • Flavor
  • food flavorings
  • natural flavoring complexes
  • risk assessment
  • safety evaluation
  • toxicity


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