Digital Dermatitis in dairy cattle

The contribution of different disease classes to transmission

Floor Biemans*, Piter Bijma, Natasja M. Boots, Mart C.M. de Jong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a claw disease mainly affecting the hind feet of dairy cattle. Digital Dermatitis is an infectious disease, transmitted via the environment, where the infectious "agent" is a combination of bacteria. The standardized classification for DD lesions developed by Döpfer et al. (1997) and extended by Berry et al. (2012) has six distinct classes: healthy (M0), an active granulomatous area of 0-2 cm (M1), an ulcerative lesion of >2 cm (M2), an ulcerative lesion covered by a scab (M3), alteration of the skin (M4), and a combination of M4 and M1 (M4.1).We hypothesize that classes M1, M2, M3, M4, and M4.1 are the potentially infectious classes that can contribute to the basic reproduction ratio (R0), the average number of new infections caused by a typical infected individual. Here, we determine differences in infectivity between the classes, the sojourn time in each of the classes, and the contribution of each class to R0. The analysis is based on data from twelve farms in the Netherlands that were visited every two weeks, eleven times.We found that 93.89% of the transitions from M0 was observed as a transition to class M4, and feet with another class-at-infection rapidly transitioned to class M4. As a consequence, about 70% of the infectious time was spent in class M4. Transmission rate parameters of class-at-infection M1, M2, M3, and M4 were not significantly different from each other, but differed from class-at-infection M4.1. However, due to the relative large amount of time spend in class M4, regardless of the class-at-infection, R0 was almost completely determined by this class. The R0 was 2.36, to which class-at-infection M4 alone contributed 88.5%.Thus, M4 lesions should be prevented to lower R0 to a value below one, while painful M2 lesions should be prevented for animal welfare reasons.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-84
JournalEpidemics
Volume23
Early online date2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018

Fingerprint

Digital Dermatitis
Infection
Foot
Basic Reproduction Number
Hoof and Claw
Animal Welfare
Netherlands
Communicable Diseases
Fruit
Bacteria
Skin

Keywords

  • Basic reproduction ratio
  • Cow
  • Hairy heel wrat
  • Infection
  • Infectivity
  • Mortellaro

Cite this

@article{26f7ca31ddd543019270075c63496d1c,
title = "Digital Dermatitis in dairy cattle: The contribution of different disease classes to transmission",
abstract = "Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a claw disease mainly affecting the hind feet of dairy cattle. Digital Dermatitis is an infectious disease, transmitted via the environment, where the infectious {"}agent{"} is a combination of bacteria. The standardized classification for DD lesions developed by D{\"o}pfer et al. (1997) and extended by Berry et al. (2012) has six distinct classes: healthy (M0), an active granulomatous area of 0-2 cm (M1), an ulcerative lesion of >2 cm (M2), an ulcerative lesion covered by a scab (M3), alteration of the skin (M4), and a combination of M4 and M1 (M4.1).We hypothesize that classes M1, M2, M3, M4, and M4.1 are the potentially infectious classes that can contribute to the basic reproduction ratio (R0), the average number of new infections caused by a typical infected individual. Here, we determine differences in infectivity between the classes, the sojourn time in each of the classes, and the contribution of each class to R0. The analysis is based on data from twelve farms in the Netherlands that were visited every two weeks, eleven times.We found that 93.89{\%} of the transitions from M0 was observed as a transition to class M4, and feet with another class-at-infection rapidly transitioned to class M4. As a consequence, about 70{\%} of the infectious time was spent in class M4. Transmission rate parameters of class-at-infection M1, M2, M3, and M4 were not significantly different from each other, but differed from class-at-infection M4.1. However, due to the relative large amount of time spend in class M4, regardless of the class-at-infection, R0 was almost completely determined by this class. The R0 was 2.36, to which class-at-infection M4 alone contributed 88.5{\%}.Thus, M4 lesions should be prevented to lower R0 to a value below one, while painful M2 lesions should be prevented for animal welfare reasons.",
keywords = "Basic reproduction ratio, Cow, Hairy heel wrat, Infection, Infectivity, Mortellaro",
author = "Floor Biemans and Piter Bijma and Boots, {Natasja M.} and {de Jong}, {Mart C.M.}",
year = "2018",
month = "6",
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language = "English",
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Digital Dermatitis in dairy cattle : The contribution of different disease classes to transmission. / Biemans, Floor; Bijma, Piter; Boots, Natasja M.; de Jong, Mart C.M.

In: Epidemics, Vol. 23, 06.2018, p. 76-84.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Digital Dermatitis in dairy cattle

T2 - The contribution of different disease classes to transmission

AU - Biemans, Floor

AU - Bijma, Piter

AU - Boots, Natasja M.

AU - de Jong, Mart C.M.

PY - 2018/6

Y1 - 2018/6

N2 - Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a claw disease mainly affecting the hind feet of dairy cattle. Digital Dermatitis is an infectious disease, transmitted via the environment, where the infectious "agent" is a combination of bacteria. The standardized classification for DD lesions developed by Döpfer et al. (1997) and extended by Berry et al. (2012) has six distinct classes: healthy (M0), an active granulomatous area of 0-2 cm (M1), an ulcerative lesion of >2 cm (M2), an ulcerative lesion covered by a scab (M3), alteration of the skin (M4), and a combination of M4 and M1 (M4.1).We hypothesize that classes M1, M2, M3, M4, and M4.1 are the potentially infectious classes that can contribute to the basic reproduction ratio (R0), the average number of new infections caused by a typical infected individual. Here, we determine differences in infectivity between the classes, the sojourn time in each of the classes, and the contribution of each class to R0. The analysis is based on data from twelve farms in the Netherlands that were visited every two weeks, eleven times.We found that 93.89% of the transitions from M0 was observed as a transition to class M4, and feet with another class-at-infection rapidly transitioned to class M4. As a consequence, about 70% of the infectious time was spent in class M4. Transmission rate parameters of class-at-infection M1, M2, M3, and M4 were not significantly different from each other, but differed from class-at-infection M4.1. However, due to the relative large amount of time spend in class M4, regardless of the class-at-infection, R0 was almost completely determined by this class. The R0 was 2.36, to which class-at-infection M4 alone contributed 88.5%.Thus, M4 lesions should be prevented to lower R0 to a value below one, while painful M2 lesions should be prevented for animal welfare reasons.

AB - Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a claw disease mainly affecting the hind feet of dairy cattle. Digital Dermatitis is an infectious disease, transmitted via the environment, where the infectious "agent" is a combination of bacteria. The standardized classification for DD lesions developed by Döpfer et al. (1997) and extended by Berry et al. (2012) has six distinct classes: healthy (M0), an active granulomatous area of 0-2 cm (M1), an ulcerative lesion of >2 cm (M2), an ulcerative lesion covered by a scab (M3), alteration of the skin (M4), and a combination of M4 and M1 (M4.1).We hypothesize that classes M1, M2, M3, M4, and M4.1 are the potentially infectious classes that can contribute to the basic reproduction ratio (R0), the average number of new infections caused by a typical infected individual. Here, we determine differences in infectivity between the classes, the sojourn time in each of the classes, and the contribution of each class to R0. The analysis is based on data from twelve farms in the Netherlands that were visited every two weeks, eleven times.We found that 93.89% of the transitions from M0 was observed as a transition to class M4, and feet with another class-at-infection rapidly transitioned to class M4. As a consequence, about 70% of the infectious time was spent in class M4. Transmission rate parameters of class-at-infection M1, M2, M3, and M4 were not significantly different from each other, but differed from class-at-infection M4.1. However, due to the relative large amount of time spend in class M4, regardless of the class-at-infection, R0 was almost completely determined by this class. The R0 was 2.36, to which class-at-infection M4 alone contributed 88.5%.Thus, M4 lesions should be prevented to lower R0 to a value below one, while painful M2 lesions should be prevented for animal welfare reasons.

KW - Basic reproduction ratio

KW - Cow

KW - Hairy heel wrat

KW - Infection

KW - Infectivity

KW - Mortellaro

U2 - 10.1016/j.epidem.2017.12.007

DO - 10.1016/j.epidem.2017.12.007

M3 - Article

VL - 23

SP - 76

EP - 84

JO - Epidemics

JF - Epidemics

SN - 1755-4365

ER -