Diffusion of milk as a new food to tropical regions : the example of Indonesia, 1880- 1942

A.P. den Hartog

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU


The problem was analysed of why and how milk and milk products spread from industrialized countries with a dairying tradition to tropical countries with no such tradition. This interdisciplinary study uses the social sciences, nutritional sciences and social history in an approach to the diffusion of food. Early in the colonial period, the Dutch began producing fresh milk on Java for their own needs, but by the 1880's sweetened condensed milk products were being imported. It were these condensed milk products that reached part of the Indonesian population. The study describes how this cane about, in particular for infant feeding, and the importance of the sweetened skim milk question. milk and milk products, once an exotic element, gradually became Indonesianized. In a postcript (1945-1985) reference is made to Indonesian efforts after independance to continue a milk industry based on both imports and locally produced fresh milk.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Hautvast, J.G.A.J., Promotor
  • van der Woude, A.M., Co-promotor
Award date9 Sep 1986
Place of PublicationWageningen
Publication statusPublished - 1986


  • demand
  • foods
  • history
  • indonesia
  • marketing
  • marketing channels
  • markets
  • milk
  • nutrient requirements
  • processed products
  • turnover
  • netherlands east indies


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