Diffuse pollution of surface water by pharmaceutical products

J.G.M. Derksen*, G.B.J. Rijs, R.H. Jongbloed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


Pharmaceutical products for humans or animals, as well as their related metabolites (degradation products) end up in the aquatic environment after use. Recent investigations from abroad show that low concentrations of pharmaceuticals are detectable in municipal waste water, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water. Little is known about the effects, and with that the risk, of long term exposure to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals for aquatic organisms. On the basis of the current knowledge, further attention to map the presence and effects of pharmaceutical residues on aquatic organisms is justified. To map the Dutch situation, recently a monitoring program has started.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-221
Number of pages9
JournalWater Science and Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Ecotoxicity
  • Effects
  • Fate
  • Monitoring
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Surface water

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