Differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth-disease: evaluation of an ELISA based on recombinant 3ABC

U. Bruderer, H. Swam, B. Haas, N. Visser, E. Brocchi, S. Grazioli, J.J. Esterhuysen, W. Vosloo, M. Forsyth, N. Aggarwal, S. Cox, R. Armstrong, J. Anderson

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    45 Citations (Scopus)


    Recent devastating outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe have reopened the discussion about the adequacy of the non-vaccination strategy implemented by the EU in 1991. Here we describe the evaluation of a new commercially available test kit for the discrimination between vaccination and infection. The test is based on the detection of antibodies against the recombinant non-structural (NS) protein 3ABC. In contrast to immunization with vaccines free of 3ABC, these antibodies are elicited as a consequence of infection. Testing more than 3600 negative sera from several countries revealed a specificity of >99% for bovine, ovine, and porcine samples. Antibodies specific for 3ABC can be detected as soon as 10 days post-infection. As compared with the occurrence of antibodies against structural proteins of FMDV, anti-3ABC antibodies can be detected 5¿10 days later, depending on the species. No anti-3ABC antibodies were detected in sera from vaccination experiments or in field sera from vaccinated animals. However, anti-3ABC antibodies can be detected in vaccinated animals upon challenge. These results provide evidence that this test can facilitate the use of vaccines in new strategies against FMD.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)187-197
    JournalVeterinary Microbiology
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2004


    • linked-immunosorbent-assay
    • nonstructural proteins
    • virus
    • livestock
    • antibodies
    • indicator
    • epidemic
    • strategy
    • strain
    • cattle

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