Differences in spatial expression between 14-3-3 isoforms in germinating barley embryos

Christa Testerink*, René M. Van Der Meulen, Berry J. Oppedijk, Albertus H. De Boer, Sjoukje Heimovaara-Dijkstra, Jan W. Kijne, Mei Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


The family of 14-3-3 proteins is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and has been shown to exert an array of functions. We were interested in the possible role of 14-3-3 proteins in seed germination. Therefore, we studied the expression of 14-3-3 mRNA and protein in barley (Hordeum distichum L.) embryos during germination. With the use of specific cDNA probes and antibodies, we could detect individual expression of three 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3A, 14-3-3B, and 14-33C. Each homolog was found to be expressed in barley embryos. Whereas protein levels of all three isoforms were constant during germination, mRNA expression was found to be induced upon imbibition of the grains. The induction of 14-3-3A gene expression during germination was different from that of 14-3-3B and 14-3-3C. In situ immunolocalization analysis showed similar spatial expression for 14-3-3A and 14-3-3B, while 14-3-3C expression was markedly different. Whereas 14-3-3A and 14-3-3B were expressed throughout the embryo, 14-3-3C expression was tissue specific, with the strongest expression observed in the scutellum and the 12 layer of the shoot apical meristem. These results show that 14-3-3 homologs are differently regulated in barley embryos, and provide a first step in acquiring more knowledge about the role of 14-3-3 proteins in the germination process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-87
Number of pages7
JournalPlant Physiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1999
Externally publishedYes


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