Differences in kinetics and dynamics of endogenous versus exogenous advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their precursors

Katja C.W. van Dongen*, Leonie Kappetein, Ignacio Miro Estruch, Clara Belzer, Karsten Beekmann, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their precursors, referred to as glycation products, are a heterogenous group of compounds being associated with adverse health effects. They are formed endogenously and in exogenous sources including food. This review investigates the roles of endogenously versus exogenously formed glycation products in the potential induction of adverse health effects, focusing on differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, which appeared to differ depending on the molecular mass of the glycation product. Based on the available data, exogenous low molecular mass (LMM) glycation products seem to be bioavailable and to contribute to dicarbonyl stress and protein cross-linking resulting in formation of endogenous AGEs. Bioavailability of exogenous high molecular mass (HMM) glycation products appears limited, while these bind to the AGE receptor (RAGE), initiating adverse health effects. Together, this suggests that RAGE-binding in relevant tissues will more likely result from endogenously formed glycation products. Effects on gut microbiota induced by glycation products is proposed as a third mode of action. Overall, studies which better discriminate between LMM and HMM glycation products and between endogenous and exogenous formation are needed to further elucidate the contributions of these different types and sources of glycation products to the ultimate biological effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112987
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • ADME
  • Cross-linking
  • Dicarbonyl stress
  • Dicarbonyls
  • Gut microbiota
  • RAGE


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