Differences in gut microbial fructoselysine degradation activity between breast-fed and formula-fed infants

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The Amadori product fructoselysine is formed upon heating of food products and is abundantly present in infant formula while being almost absent in breast milk. The human gut microbiota can degrade fructoselysine for which interindividual differences have been described for adults. The aim of this study is to compare functional differences in microbial fructoselysine degradation between breast-fed and formula-fed infants, in view of their different diets and resulting different fructoselysine exposures. First, a publicly available metagenomic dataset with metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from infant fecal samples was analyzed and showed that query genes involved in fructoselysine degradation (frlD/yhfQ) were abundantly present in multiple bacterial taxa in the fecal samples, with a higher prevalence in the formula-fed infants. Next, fecal samples collected from exclusively breast-fed and formula-fed infants were anaerobically incubated with fructoselysine. Both groups degraded fructoselysine, however the fructoselysine degradation activity was significantly higher by fecal samples from formula-fed infants. Overall, this study provides evidence that infant formula feeding, leading to increased dietary fructoselysine exposure, seems to result in an increased fructoselysine degradation activity in the gut microbiota of infants. This indicates that the infant gut microbiota adapts towards dietary fructoselysine exposure.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberfiac145
JournalFEMS Microbiology Ecology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


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