This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. Methods. A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design—(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither— was performed in 143 frail elderly persons (aged 78.6±5.6 years). Foods were enriched with multiple micronutrients; exercises focused on skill training, including strength, endurance, coordination, and flexibility. Main outcome parameters were bone and body composition. Results. Exercise preserved lean mass (mean difference between exercisers and nonexercisers: 0.5 kg±1.2 kg; P<.02). Groups receiving enriched food had slightly increased bone mineral density ( 0.4Œ bone mass ( 0.6Œ and bone calcium ( 0.6€compared with groups receiving nonenriched foods, in whom small decreases of 0.1…0.2°and 0.4°respectively, were found. These groups differed in bone mineral density (0.006±0.020 g/cm2; P= .08), total bone mass (19±g; P=.04), and bone calcium (8±21 g; P=.03). Conclusions. Foods containing a physiologic dose of micronutrients slightly increased bone density, mass, and calcium, whereas moderately intense exercise preserved lean body mass in frail elderly persons.
|Journal||American Journal of Public Health|
|Publication status||Published - 2000|