Dietary intake and risk evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in The Netherlands

M.I. Bakker, R. Winter-Sorkina, A. de Mul, P.E. Boon, G. van Donkersgoed, J.D. van Klaveren, B.A. Baumann, W.C. Hijman, S.P.J. van Leeuwen, J. de Boer, M.J. Zeilmaker

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    87 Citations (Scopus)


    The current study aims at estimating the dietary intake of PBDEs in the Netherlands and evaluating the resultant risk. Dietary intake was estimated using results of PBDE analyses in Dutch food products from 2003/2004 and consumption data of the third Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (1997/1998). Assuming that non-detects represent levels of half the detection limit, the median long-term intake of the Dutch population of the sum of five major PBDEs (namely PBDEs 47, 99, 100, 153+154) is 0.79 ng/kg body weight bw/day (P97.5: 1.62 ng/kg bw/day). When non-detects are considered as zeros the values are 0.53 (median) and 1.34 (P97.5) ng/kg bw/day. Environmental concentrations of PBDEs in Europe are expected to decline in the near future because of the ban on penta- and octaBDE technical products. However, it will take at least a decade before this will result in lower PBDE concentrations in food products. Hence, a regular monitoring program for PBDEs is recommended. A risk evaluation at the most sensitive endpoints of BDE 99 carried out in this paper indicates that, although the long-term exposure to BDE 99 is well below the human exposure threshold level for neurodevelopmental toxicity, it may be close to that for reproductive toxicity.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)204-216
    JournalMolecular Nutrition & Food Research
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


    • brominated flame retardants
    • neonatal brain-development
    • human exposure
    • spontaneous behavior
    • market-basket
    • adult mice
    • 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether
    • developmental exposure
    • house-dust
    • pbdes


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