Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in The Netherlands anno 2004

A. de Mul, M.I. Bakker, M.J. Zeilmaker, W.A. Traag, S.P.J. van Leeuwen, L.A.P. Hoogenboom, P.E. Boon, J.D. van Klaveren

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    67 Citations (Scopus)


    In this study, representative occurrence data for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in food were obtained and used to estimate dietary exposure of the Dutch population. Food composite samples were analyzed as well as single fish and vegetables samples. Total dioxin concentrations in animal products ranged from 0.05 pg TEQ/g product in poultry to 2.5 pg TEQ/g product (using TEF2006) in fish (shrimp), with 0.12 pg TEQ/g product being the lowest concentrations measured in fish (tuna). In vegetable products, concentrations ranged from 0.00002 pg TEQ/g product (white kale) to 0.19 pg TEQ/g (oils and fats). A long-term dietary exposure distribution was calculated using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment software. The lower bound median exposure of the Dutch population to PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs was estimated at 0.8 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/d, half of which were dioxin-like PCBs. Dairy was the main source (38%) due to its high consumption. Time-trend analysis shows that the exposure to dioxins has further decreased by 35% over the past five years. This is due to lower levels of dioxin-like compounds in most of the foods, mainly influenced by lower levels in meat and milk. The use of the new TEFs gives an exposure reduction of 10% with respect to TEF1998. Still, 4% of the Dutch population exceeds the exposure limit of 14 pg/kg bw/week as set by the EU.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)278-287
    JournalRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


    • dibenzo-p-dioxins
    • polychlorinated-biphenyls
    • food
    • foodstuffs
    • cooking
    • pcdds
    • pcdfs
    • fish
    • contamination
    • distributions


    Dive into the research topics of 'Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in The Netherlands anno 2004'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this