Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids

Dennis G.A.B. Oonincx, Sophie Laurent, Margot E. Veenenbos, Joop J.A. van Loon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57%) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1%, 2%, or 4% flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3%–2.7%. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2% flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1% inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.

LanguageEnglish
JournalInsect Science
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Feb 2019

Fingerprint

edible insects
Linseed Oil
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Nutrition
linseed oil
omega-3 fatty acids
Insects
Hermetia illucens
fatty acid
Alphitobius diaperinus
insect
diet
Diet
Acheta domesticus
insects
fatty acid composition
Tenebrio
oil
Simuliidae
Gryllidae

Keywords

  • Acheta domesticus
  • Alphitobius diaperinus
  • diet
  • fatty acids
  • Hermetia illucens

Cite this

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title = "Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids",
abstract = "Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57{\%}) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1{\%}, 2{\%}, or 4{\%} flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3{\%}–2.7{\%}. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2{\%} flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1{\%} inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.",
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author = "Oonincx, {Dennis G.A.B.} and Sophie Laurent and Veenenbos, {Margot E.} and {van Loon}, {Joop J.A.}",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
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doi = "10.1111/1744-7917.12669",
language = "English",
journal = "Insect Science",
issn = "1672-9609",
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}

Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids. / Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B.; Laurent, Sophie; Veenenbos, Margot E.; van Loon, Joop J.A.

In: Insect Science, 23.02.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids

AU - Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B.

AU - Laurent, Sophie

AU - Veenenbos, Margot E.

AU - van Loon, Joop J.A.

PY - 2019/2/23

Y1 - 2019/2/23

N2 - Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57%) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1%, 2%, or 4% flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3%–2.7%. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2% flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1% inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.

AB - Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57%) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1%, 2%, or 4% flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3%–2.7%. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2% flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1% inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.

KW - Acheta domesticus

KW - Alphitobius diaperinus

KW - diet

KW - fatty acids

KW - Hermetia illucens

U2 - 10.1111/1744-7917.12669

DO - 10.1111/1744-7917.12669

M3 - Article

JO - Insect Science

T2 - Insect Science

JF - Insect Science

SN - 1672-9609

ER -