Dietary and plasma carboxymethyl lysine and tumor necrosis factor-α as mediators of body mass index and waist circumference among women in indonesia

Patricia Budihartanti Liman, Rina Agustina*, Ratna Djuwita, Jahja Umar, Inge Permadhi, Helmizar, Adi Hidayat, Edith J.M. Feskens, Murdani Abdullah

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Dietary and plasma carboxymethyl lysine (dCML, pCML) and plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (pTNF-α) may be associated with obesity in affluent society. However, evidence in women from low-middle income countries with predominantly traditional diets is lacking. We investigated the mediator effects of dCML, pCML and pTNF-α on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Indonesian women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 235 non-diabetic, non-anemic and non-smoking women aged 19–50 years from selected mountainous and coastal areas of West Sumatra and West Java. Dietary CML, pCML, pTNF-α were obtained from 2 × 24-h recalls, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Between-group differences were analyzed by the Chi-square or Mann-Whitney test and mediator effects by Structural Equation Modeling. The medians and interquartile-ranges of dCML, pCML and pTNF-α were 2.2 (1.7–3.0) mg/day, 22.2 (17.2–28.2) ng/mL and 0.68 (0.52–1.00) IU/mL, respectively, and significantly higher in the WC ≥ 80 cm than in the WC < 80 cm group, but not in BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2 group. Plasma CML and pTNF-α were positively and directly related to WC (β = 0.21 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.33] and β = 0.23 [95% CI: 0.11, 0.35], respectively). Dietary CML that correlated with dry-heat processing and cereals as the highest contributions was positively related to WC (β = 0.33 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.83]). Ethnicity, level of education, intake of fat, and intake of energy contributed to dCML, pCML and pTNF-α, and subsequently affected WC, while only ethnicity contributed to BMI through dCML, pCML and pTNF-α (β = 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.14]). A positive direct effect of dCML on pCML and of pCML and pTNF-α on WC was seen among Indonesian women. Dietary CML seems to have several paths that indirectly influence the increases in WC if compared to BMI. Thus, intake of CML-rich foods should be reduced, or the foods consumed in moderate amounts to avoid the risk of central obesity in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3057
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

Keywords

  • Body mass index
  • Carboxymethyl lysine
  • Central obesity
  • Indonesian women
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α
  • Waist circumference

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