Diet density during the first week of life: Effects on energy and nitrogen balance characteristics of broiler chickens

D.M. Lamot, D. Sapkota, P.J.A. Wijtten, I. van den Anker-Hensen, M.J.W. Heetkamp, B. Kemp, H. van den Brand

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study aimed to determine effects of diet density on growth performance, energy balance, and nitrogen (N) balance characteristics of broiler chickens during the first wk of life. Effects of diet density were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The relative difference in dietary energy level was used to increase amino acid levels, mineral levels, and the premix inclusion level at the same ratio. Chickens were housed in open-circuit climate respiration chambers from d 0 to 7 after hatch. Body weight was measured on d 0 and 7, whereas feed intake was determined daily. For calculation of energy balances, O2 and CO2 exchange were measured continuously and all excreta from d 0 to 7 was collected and analyzed at d 7. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased linearly (P = 0.047 and P < 0.001, respectively), whereas gain to feed ratio increased (P < 0.001) with increasing diet density. Gross energy (GE) intake and metabolizable energy (ME) intake were not affected by diet density, but the ratio between ME and GE intake decreased linearly with increasing diet density (P = 0.006). Fat, N, and GE efficiencies (expressed as gain per unit of nutrient intake), heat production, and respiratory exchange ratio (CO2 to O2 ratio) decreased linearly (P < 0.001) as diet density increased. Energy retention, N intake, and N retention were not affected by diet density. We conclude that a higher diet density in the first wk of life of broiler chickens did not affect protein and fat retention, whereas the ME to GE ratio decreased linearly with increased diet density. This suggests that diet density appears to affect digestibility rather than utilization of nutrients.
LanguageEnglish
Pages2294-2300
JournalPoultry Science
Volume96
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Mar 2017

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nitrogen balance
energy balance
broiler chickens
diet
metabolizable energy
energy intake
energy
feed intake
nutrient utilization
energy efficiency
excreta
lipids
heat production
average daily gain
nutrient intake
dietary fat
breathing
dose response
growth performance
digestibility

Keywords

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    title = "Diet density during the first week of life: Effects on energy and nitrogen balance characteristics of broiler chickens",
    abstract = "This study aimed to determine effects of diet density on growth performance, energy balance, and nitrogen (N) balance characteristics of broiler chickens during the first wk of life. Effects of diet density were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5{\%}). The relative difference in dietary energy level was used to increase amino acid levels, mineral levels, and the premix inclusion level at the same ratio. Chickens were housed in open-circuit climate respiration chambers from d 0 to 7 after hatch. Body weight was measured on d 0 and 7, whereas feed intake was determined daily. For calculation of energy balances, O2 and CO2 exchange were measured continuously and all excreta from d 0 to 7 was collected and analyzed at d 7. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased linearly (P = 0.047 and P < 0.001, respectively), whereas gain to feed ratio increased (P < 0.001) with increasing diet density. Gross energy (GE) intake and metabolizable energy (ME) intake were not affected by diet density, but the ratio between ME and GE intake decreased linearly with increasing diet density (P = 0.006). Fat, N, and GE efficiencies (expressed as gain per unit of nutrient intake), heat production, and respiratory exchange ratio (CO2 to O2 ratio) decreased linearly (P < 0.001) as diet density increased. Energy retention, N intake, and N retention were not affected by diet density. We conclude that a higher diet density in the first wk of life of broiler chickens did not affect protein and fat retention, whereas the ME to GE ratio decreased linearly with increased diet density. This suggests that diet density appears to affect digestibility rather than utilization of nutrients.",
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    author = "D.M. Lamot and D. Sapkota and P.J.A. Wijtten and {van den Anker-Hensen}, I. and M.J.W. Heetkamp and B. Kemp and {van den Brand}, H.",
    year = "2017",
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    language = "English",
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    Diet density during the first week of life: Effects on energy and nitrogen balance characteristics of broiler chickens. / Lamot, D.M.; Sapkota, D.; Wijtten, P.J.A.; van den Anker-Hensen, I.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.; van den Brand, H.

    In: Poultry Science, Vol. 96, No. 7, 11.03.2017, p. 2294-2300.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Diet density during the first week of life: Effects on energy and nitrogen balance characteristics of broiler chickens

    AU - Lamot, D.M.

    AU - Sapkota, D.

    AU - Wijtten, P.J.A.

    AU - van den Anker-Hensen, I.

    AU - Heetkamp, M.J.W.

    AU - Kemp, B.

    AU - van den Brand, H.

    PY - 2017/3/11

    Y1 - 2017/3/11

    N2 - This study aimed to determine effects of diet density on growth performance, energy balance, and nitrogen (N) balance characteristics of broiler chickens during the first wk of life. Effects of diet density were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The relative difference in dietary energy level was used to increase amino acid levels, mineral levels, and the premix inclusion level at the same ratio. Chickens were housed in open-circuit climate respiration chambers from d 0 to 7 after hatch. Body weight was measured on d 0 and 7, whereas feed intake was determined daily. For calculation of energy balances, O2 and CO2 exchange were measured continuously and all excreta from d 0 to 7 was collected and analyzed at d 7. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased linearly (P = 0.047 and P < 0.001, respectively), whereas gain to feed ratio increased (P < 0.001) with increasing diet density. Gross energy (GE) intake and metabolizable energy (ME) intake were not affected by diet density, but the ratio between ME and GE intake decreased linearly with increasing diet density (P = 0.006). Fat, N, and GE efficiencies (expressed as gain per unit of nutrient intake), heat production, and respiratory exchange ratio (CO2 to O2 ratio) decreased linearly (P < 0.001) as diet density increased. Energy retention, N intake, and N retention were not affected by diet density. We conclude that a higher diet density in the first wk of life of broiler chickens did not affect protein and fat retention, whereas the ME to GE ratio decreased linearly with increased diet density. This suggests that diet density appears to affect digestibility rather than utilization of nutrients.

    AB - This study aimed to determine effects of diet density on growth performance, energy balance, and nitrogen (N) balance characteristics of broiler chickens during the first wk of life. Effects of diet density were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The relative difference in dietary energy level was used to increase amino acid levels, mineral levels, and the premix inclusion level at the same ratio. Chickens were housed in open-circuit climate respiration chambers from d 0 to 7 after hatch. Body weight was measured on d 0 and 7, whereas feed intake was determined daily. For calculation of energy balances, O2 and CO2 exchange were measured continuously and all excreta from d 0 to 7 was collected and analyzed at d 7. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased linearly (P = 0.047 and P < 0.001, respectively), whereas gain to feed ratio increased (P < 0.001) with increasing diet density. Gross energy (GE) intake and metabolizable energy (ME) intake were not affected by diet density, but the ratio between ME and GE intake decreased linearly with increasing diet density (P = 0.006). Fat, N, and GE efficiencies (expressed as gain per unit of nutrient intake), heat production, and respiratory exchange ratio (CO2 to O2 ratio) decreased linearly (P < 0.001) as diet density increased. Energy retention, N intake, and N retention were not affected by diet density. We conclude that a higher diet density in the first wk of life of broiler chickens did not affect protein and fat retention, whereas the ME to GE ratio decreased linearly with increased diet density. This suggests that diet density appears to affect digestibility rather than utilization of nutrients.

    KW - broiler chickens

    KW - dietary fat

    KW - diet density

    KW - energy balance

    KW - indirect calorimetry

    U2 - 10.3382/ps/pex020

    DO - 10.3382/ps/pex020

    M3 - Article

    VL - 96

    SP - 2294

    EP - 2300

    JO - Poultry Science

    T2 - Poultry Science

    JF - Poultry Science

    SN - 0032-5791

    IS - 7

    ER -