The potential developmental toxicity and mode-of-action of fume condensate extracts of bitumen and oxidized asphalt were evaluated in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) CALUX assay, the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET), and the mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST). In the AhR CALUX assay, both fume condensate extracts showed a concentration-dependent AhR induction following 6-h of exposure, but this activity was substantially reduced after 24-h, indicating a transient AhR activation. The main effect observed in the ZET was early embryonic lethality that occurred mostly in the 24 h-post-fertilization (hpf). This typically reflects non-specific toxicity rather than in vitro developmental toxicity of the fume condensate extracts tested since this effect was not seen as a result of the whole cumulative exposure period in the ZET (up to 96 hpf). No malformations were seen in any zebrafish embryo exposed to these fume condensate extracts, although some developed pericardial and/or yolk-sac edemas. Furthermore, both fume condensate extracts tested negative in the mEST. In conclusion, the results show that fume condensate extracts of bitumen and oxidized asphalt do not induce any in vitro developmental toxicity, which is in line with the results observed in the in vivo prenatal developmental toxicity studies performed with the same materials.
- Alternative testing strategy
- Bitumen fume condensate
- Developmental toxicity
- Oxidized asphalt fume condensate
- Petroleum UVCB substances
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons