Projects per year
The goal of the present study was to develop an online web-based toolbox that contains generic physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models for rats and humans, including underlying calculation tools to predict plasma protein binding and tissue:plasma distribution, to be used for quantitative in-vitro-to-in-vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE). The PBK models within the toolbox allow first estimations of internal plasma and tissue concentrations of chemicals to be made, based on the logP and pKa of the chemicals and values for intestinal uptake and intrinsic hepatic clearance. As a case study, the toolbox was used to predict oral equivalent doses of in vitro ToxCast bioactivity data for the food additives methylparaben, propyl gallate, octyl gallate, and dodecyl gallate. These oral equivalent doses were subsequently compared with human exposure estimates, as a low tier assessment allowing prioritization for further assessment. The results revealed that daily intake levels of especially propyl gallate can lead to internal plasma concentrations that are close to in vitro biological effect concentrations, particularly with respect to the inhibition of human thyroid peroxidase (TPO). Estrogenic effects were not considered likely to be induced by the food additives, as daily exposure levels of the different compounds remained 2 orders of magnitude below the oral equivalent doses for in vitro estrogen receptor activation. Overall, the results of the study show how the toolbox, which is freely accessible through www.qivivetools.wur.nl, can be used to obtain initial internal dose estimates of chemicals and to prioritize chemicals for further assessment, based on the comparison of oral equivalent doses of in vitro biological activity data with human exposure levels.