Development of a solitary koinobiont hyperparasitoid in different instars of its primary and secondary hosts

Jeffrey A. Harvey*, Minghui Fei, Mark Lammers, Martine Kos, Feng Zhu, Robin Heinen, Erik H. Poelman, Rieta Gols

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Parasitoid wasps are excellent organisms for studying the allocation of host resources to different fitness functions such as adult body mass and development time. Koinobiont parasitoids attack hosts that continue feeding and growing during parasitism, whereas idiobiont parasitoids attack non-growing host stages or paralyzed hosts. Many adult female koinobionts attack a broad range of host stages and are therefore faced with a different set of dynamic challenges compared with idiobionts, where host resources are largely static. Thus far studies on solitary koinobionts have been almost exclusively based on primary parasitoids, yet it is known that many of these are in turn attacked by both koinobiont and idiobiont hyperparasitoids. Here we compare parasitism and development of a primary koinobiont hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus gemellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in larvae of the gregarious primary koinobiont parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) developing in the secondary herbivore host, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). As far as we know this is the first study to examine development of a solitary primary hyperparasitoid in different stages of its secondary herbivore host. Pieris brassicae caterpillars were parasitized as L1 by C. glomerata and then these parasitized caterpillars were presented in separate cohorts to M. gemellus as L3, L4 or L5 instar P. brassicae. Different instars of the secondary hosts were used as proxies for different developmental stages of the primary host, C. glomerata. Larvae of C. glomerata in L5 P. brassicae were significantly longer than those in L3 and L4 caterpillars. Irrespective of secondary host instar, every parasitoid cluster was hyperparasitized by M. gemellus but all only produced male progeny. Male development time decreased with host stage attacked, whereas adult male body mass did not, which shows that M. gemellus is able to optimally exploit older host larvae in terms of adult size despite their decreasing mass during the pupal stage. Across a range of cocoon masses, hyperparasitoid adult male body mass was approximately 84% as large as primary parasitoids, revealing that M. gemellus is almost as efficient at exploiting host resources as secondary (pupal) hyperparasitoids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-42
JournalJournal of Insect Physiology
Volume90
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

intermediate hosts
instars
Larva
Hymenoptera
Herbivory
Cotesia glomerata
Pieris brassicae
parasitoids
Wasps
Lepidoptera
Resource Allocation
Proxy
hyperparasitoids
insect larvae
larvae
Mesochorus
parasitism
herbivores
Pieridae
Ichneumonidae

Keywords

  • Cotesia glomerata
  • Growth
  • Instar
  • Larva
  • Mesochorus gemellus
  • Pieris brassicae
  • 016-3949

Cite this

@article{aeebf1ede6ba4c31b2c1f4fd93f20a78,
title = "Development of a solitary koinobiont hyperparasitoid in different instars of its primary and secondary hosts",
abstract = "Parasitoid wasps are excellent organisms for studying the allocation of host resources to different fitness functions such as adult body mass and development time. Koinobiont parasitoids attack hosts that continue feeding and growing during parasitism, whereas idiobiont parasitoids attack non-growing host stages or paralyzed hosts. Many adult female koinobionts attack a broad range of host stages and are therefore faced with a different set of dynamic challenges compared with idiobionts, where host resources are largely static. Thus far studies on solitary koinobionts have been almost exclusively based on primary parasitoids, yet it is known that many of these are in turn attacked by both koinobiont and idiobiont hyperparasitoids. Here we compare parasitism and development of a primary koinobiont hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus gemellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in larvae of the gregarious primary koinobiont parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) developing in the secondary herbivore host, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). As far as we know this is the first study to examine development of a solitary primary hyperparasitoid in different stages of its secondary herbivore host. Pieris brassicae caterpillars were parasitized as L1 by C. glomerata and then these parasitized caterpillars were presented in separate cohorts to M. gemellus as L3, L4 or L5 instar P. brassicae. Different instars of the secondary hosts were used as proxies for different developmental stages of the primary host, C. glomerata. Larvae of C. glomerata in L5 P. brassicae were significantly longer than those in L3 and L4 caterpillars. Irrespective of secondary host instar, every parasitoid cluster was hyperparasitized by M. gemellus but all only produced male progeny. Male development time decreased with host stage attacked, whereas adult male body mass did not, which shows that M. gemellus is able to optimally exploit older host larvae in terms of adult size despite their decreasing mass during the pupal stage. Across a range of cocoon masses, hyperparasitoid adult male body mass was approximately 84{\%} as large as primary parasitoids, revealing that M. gemellus is almost as efficient at exploiting host resources as secondary (pupal) hyperparasitoids.",
keywords = "Cotesia glomerata, Growth, Instar, Larva, Mesochorus gemellus, Pieris brassicae, 016-3949",
author = "Harvey, {Jeffrey A.} and Minghui Fei and Mark Lammers and Martine Kos and Feng Zhu and Robin Heinen and Poelman, {Erik H.} and Rieta Gols",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1016/j.jinsphys.2016.05.006",
language = "English",
volume = "90",
pages = "36--42",
journal = "Journal of Insect Physiology",
issn = "0022-1910",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Development of a solitary koinobiont hyperparasitoid in different instars of its primary and secondary hosts. / Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Fei, Minghui; Lammers, Mark; Kos, Martine; Zhu, Feng; Heinen, Robin; Poelman, Erik H.; Gols, Rieta.

In: Journal of Insect Physiology, Vol. 90, 2016, p. 36-42.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Development of a solitary koinobiont hyperparasitoid in different instars of its primary and secondary hosts

AU - Harvey, Jeffrey A.

AU - Fei, Minghui

AU - Lammers, Mark

AU - Kos, Martine

AU - Zhu, Feng

AU - Heinen, Robin

AU - Poelman, Erik H.

AU - Gols, Rieta

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Parasitoid wasps are excellent organisms for studying the allocation of host resources to different fitness functions such as adult body mass and development time. Koinobiont parasitoids attack hosts that continue feeding and growing during parasitism, whereas idiobiont parasitoids attack non-growing host stages or paralyzed hosts. Many adult female koinobionts attack a broad range of host stages and are therefore faced with a different set of dynamic challenges compared with idiobionts, where host resources are largely static. Thus far studies on solitary koinobionts have been almost exclusively based on primary parasitoids, yet it is known that many of these are in turn attacked by both koinobiont and idiobiont hyperparasitoids. Here we compare parasitism and development of a primary koinobiont hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus gemellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in larvae of the gregarious primary koinobiont parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) developing in the secondary herbivore host, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). As far as we know this is the first study to examine development of a solitary primary hyperparasitoid in different stages of its secondary herbivore host. Pieris brassicae caterpillars were parasitized as L1 by C. glomerata and then these parasitized caterpillars were presented in separate cohorts to M. gemellus as L3, L4 or L5 instar P. brassicae. Different instars of the secondary hosts were used as proxies for different developmental stages of the primary host, C. glomerata. Larvae of C. glomerata in L5 P. brassicae were significantly longer than those in L3 and L4 caterpillars. Irrespective of secondary host instar, every parasitoid cluster was hyperparasitized by M. gemellus but all only produced male progeny. Male development time decreased with host stage attacked, whereas adult male body mass did not, which shows that M. gemellus is able to optimally exploit older host larvae in terms of adult size despite their decreasing mass during the pupal stage. Across a range of cocoon masses, hyperparasitoid adult male body mass was approximately 84% as large as primary parasitoids, revealing that M. gemellus is almost as efficient at exploiting host resources as secondary (pupal) hyperparasitoids.

AB - Parasitoid wasps are excellent organisms for studying the allocation of host resources to different fitness functions such as adult body mass and development time. Koinobiont parasitoids attack hosts that continue feeding and growing during parasitism, whereas idiobiont parasitoids attack non-growing host stages or paralyzed hosts. Many adult female koinobionts attack a broad range of host stages and are therefore faced with a different set of dynamic challenges compared with idiobionts, where host resources are largely static. Thus far studies on solitary koinobionts have been almost exclusively based on primary parasitoids, yet it is known that many of these are in turn attacked by both koinobiont and idiobiont hyperparasitoids. Here we compare parasitism and development of a primary koinobiont hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus gemellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in larvae of the gregarious primary koinobiont parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) developing in the secondary herbivore host, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). As far as we know this is the first study to examine development of a solitary primary hyperparasitoid in different stages of its secondary herbivore host. Pieris brassicae caterpillars were parasitized as L1 by C. glomerata and then these parasitized caterpillars were presented in separate cohorts to M. gemellus as L3, L4 or L5 instar P. brassicae. Different instars of the secondary hosts were used as proxies for different developmental stages of the primary host, C. glomerata. Larvae of C. glomerata in L5 P. brassicae were significantly longer than those in L3 and L4 caterpillars. Irrespective of secondary host instar, every parasitoid cluster was hyperparasitized by M. gemellus but all only produced male progeny. Male development time decreased with host stage attacked, whereas adult male body mass did not, which shows that M. gemellus is able to optimally exploit older host larvae in terms of adult size despite their decreasing mass during the pupal stage. Across a range of cocoon masses, hyperparasitoid adult male body mass was approximately 84% as large as primary parasitoids, revealing that M. gemellus is almost as efficient at exploiting host resources as secondary (pupal) hyperparasitoids.

KW - Cotesia glomerata

KW - Growth

KW - Instar

KW - Larva

KW - Mesochorus gemellus

KW - Pieris brassicae

KW - 016-3949

U2 - 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2016.05.006

DO - 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2016.05.006

M3 - Article

VL - 90

SP - 36

EP - 42

JO - Journal of Insect Physiology

JF - Journal of Insect Physiology

SN - 0022-1910

ER -