Development of a classical swine fever subunit marker vaccine and companion diagnostic test

R.J. Moormann, A. Bouma, J.A. Kramps, C. Terpstra, H.J. de Smit

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    Abstract

    The development of a classical swine fever (CSF) subunit marker vaccine, based on viral envelope glycoprotein E2, and a companion diagnostic test, based on a second viral envelope glycoprotein E(RNS), will be described. Important properties of the vaccine, such as onset and duration of immunity, and prevention of horizontal and vertical transmission of virus were evaluated. A single dose of the vaccine protected pigs against clinical signs of CSF, following intranasal challenge with 100LD50 of virulent classical swine fever virus (CSFV) at 2 weeks after vaccination. However, challenge virus transmission to unvaccinated sentinels was not always completely inhibited at this time point. From 3 weeks up to 6 months after vaccination, pigs were protected against clinical signs of CSF, and no longer transmitted challenge virus to unvaccinated sentinels. In contrast, unvaccinated control pigs died within 2 weeks after challenge. We also evaluated transmission of challenge virus in a setup enabling determination of the reproduction ratio (R value) of the virus. In such an experiment, transmission of challenge virus is determined in a fully vaccinated population at different time points after vaccination. Pigs challenged at 1 week after immunization died of CSF, whereas the vaccinated sentinels became infected, seroconverted for E(RNS) antibodies, but survived. At 2 weeks after vaccination, the challenged pigs seroconverted for E(RNS) antibodies, but none of the vaccinated sentinels did. Thus, at 1 week after vaccination, R>1, and at 2 weeks, R=0, implying no control or control of an outbreak, respectively. Vertical transmission of CSFV to the immune-incompetent fetus may lead to the birth of highly viraemic, persistently infected piglets which are one of the major sources of virus spread. Protection against transplacental transmission of CSFV in vaccinated sows was, therefore, tested in once and twice vaccinated sows. Only one out of nine once-vaccinated sows transmitted challenge virus to the fetus, whereas none of the nine twice-vaccinated sows did. Finally, our data show that the E(RNS) test detects CSFV-specific antibodies in vaccinated or unvaccinated pigs as early as 14 days after infection with a virulent CSF strain. This indicates that the E2 vaccine and companion test fully comply with the marker vaccine concept. This concept implies the possibility of detecting infected animals within a vaccinated population. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)209-219
    JournalVeterinary Microbiology
    Volume73
    Issue number2-3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2000

    Keywords

    • Classical swine fever virus (CSFV)
    • E(RNS) diagnostic test
    • E2 marker vaccine

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