Development and validation of the acculturative stress scale for Pakistani Muslim students

Asma Bashir*, Ruhi Khalid

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The current study aimed to develop a culturally competent scale to examine the unique stressors encountered by Muslim Pakistani students during their stay abroad. A pool of 31-item was subjected to Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) which yielded the final 24 items scale resulted in six distinct domains of stressors, academic (six items), general living and finance (four items), perceived discrimination (three items), cultural and religious (four items), local & environmental (four items), language barrier (three items). The Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Scale was developed and validated for Pakistani students and can be used as a diagnostic tool by campus counselors and mental health practitioners.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1714101
JournalCogent Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jan 2020



  • academic stressors
  • acculturative stress
  • cultural stressors
  • discrimination
  • financial stressors
  • Pakistani
  • religious stressors

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