Due to the unique characteristics of nanomaterials (NM) there has been an increase in their use in nanomedicines and innovative medical devices (MD). Although large numbers of NMs have now been developed, comprehensive safety investigations are still lacking. Current gaps in understanding the potential mechanisms of NM-induced toxicity can make it challenging to determine the safety testing necessary to support inclusion of NMs in MD applications. This article provides guidance for implementation of pre-clinical tailored safety assessment strategies with the aim to increase the translation of NMs from bench development to clinical use. Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATAs) are a key tool in developing these strategies. IATAs follow an iterative approach to answer a defined question in a specific regulatory context to guide the gathering of relevant information for safety assessment, including existing experimental data, integrated with in silico model predictions where available and appropriate, and/or experimental procedures and protocols for generating new data to fill gaps. This allows NM developers to work toward current guidelines and regulations, while taking NM specific considerations into account. Here, an example IATA for NMs with potential for direct blood contact was developed for the assessment of haemocompatibility. This example IATA brings together the current guidelines for NM safety assessment within a framework that can be used to guide information and data gathering for the safety assessment of intravenously injected NMs. Additionally, the decision framework underpinning this IATA has the potential to be adapted to other testing needs and regulatory contexts.
|Early online date||1 Aug 2022|
|Publication status||Published - 2022|