Determining the relation between groundwater flow velocities and measured temperature differences using active heating-distributed temperature sensing

Wiecher Bakx*, Pieter J. Doornenbal, Rebecca J. van Weesep, Victor F. Bense, Gualbert H.P. Oude Essink, Marc F.P. Bierkens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing (AH-DTS) has the potential to allow for the measurement of groundwater flow velocities in situ. We placed DTS fiber-optic cables combined with a heating wire in direct contact with aquifer sediments in a laboratory scale groundwater flow simulator. Using this setup, we empirically determined the relationship between ΔT, the temperature difference by constant and uniform heating of the DTS cable and the background temperature of the groundwater system, and horizontal groundwater flow velocity. Second, we simulated the observed temperature response of the system using a plan-view heat transfer flow model to calibrate for the thermal properties of the sediment and to optimize cable setup for sensitivity to variation in groundwater flow velocities. Additionally, we derived an analytical solution based on the heat flow equation that can be used to explicitly calculate flow velocity from measured ΔT for this specific AH-DTS cable setup. We expect that this equation, after calibration for cable constitution, is valid for estimating groundwater flow velocity based on absolute temperature differences measured in field applications using this cable setup.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1619
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Volume11
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2019

Fingerprint

cables (equipment)
Groundwater flow
Groundwater
groundwater flow
heat pump
cable
Flow velocity
Heating
flow velocity
Cables
heating
heat
Temperature
temperature
Hot Temperature
Sediments
Heat transfer
communication technology
sediments
constitution

Keywords

  • Distributed temperature sensing
  • Groundwater monitoring
  • Groundwater velocities

Cite this

Bakx, Wiecher ; Doornenbal, Pieter J. ; van Weesep, Rebecca J. ; Bense, Victor F. ; Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P. ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. / Determining the relation between groundwater flow velocities and measured temperature differences using active heating-distributed temperature sensing. In: Water (Switzerland). 2019 ; Vol. 11, No. 8.
@article{5293c7078f594851b16d172219570df6,
title = "Determining the relation between groundwater flow velocities and measured temperature differences using active heating-distributed temperature sensing",
abstract = "Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing (AH-DTS) has the potential to allow for the measurement of groundwater flow velocities in situ. We placed DTS fiber-optic cables combined with a heating wire in direct contact with aquifer sediments in a laboratory scale groundwater flow simulator. Using this setup, we empirically determined the relationship between ΔT, the temperature difference by constant and uniform heating of the DTS cable and the background temperature of the groundwater system, and horizontal groundwater flow velocity. Second, we simulated the observed temperature response of the system using a plan-view heat transfer flow model to calibrate for the thermal properties of the sediment and to optimize cable setup for sensitivity to variation in groundwater flow velocities. Additionally, we derived an analytical solution based on the heat flow equation that can be used to explicitly calculate flow velocity from measured ΔT for this specific AH-DTS cable setup. We expect that this equation, after calibration for cable constitution, is valid for estimating groundwater flow velocity based on absolute temperature differences measured in field applications using this cable setup.",
keywords = "Distributed temperature sensing, Groundwater monitoring, Groundwater velocities",
author = "Wiecher Bakx and Doornenbal, {Pieter J.} and {van Weesep}, {Rebecca J.} and Bense, {Victor F.} and {Oude Essink}, {Gualbert H.P.} and Bierkens, {Marc F.P.}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "5",
doi = "10.3390/w11081619",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
journal = "Water",
issn = "2073-4441",
publisher = "MDPI",
number = "8",

}

Determining the relation between groundwater flow velocities and measured temperature differences using active heating-distributed temperature sensing. / Bakx, Wiecher; Doornenbal, Pieter J.; van Weesep, Rebecca J.; Bense, Victor F.; Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P.; Bierkens, Marc F.P.

In: Water (Switzerland), Vol. 11, No. 8, 1619, 05.08.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Determining the relation between groundwater flow velocities and measured temperature differences using active heating-distributed temperature sensing

AU - Bakx, Wiecher

AU - Doornenbal, Pieter J.

AU - van Weesep, Rebecca J.

AU - Bense, Victor F.

AU - Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P.

AU - Bierkens, Marc F.P.

PY - 2019/8/5

Y1 - 2019/8/5

N2 - Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing (AH-DTS) has the potential to allow for the measurement of groundwater flow velocities in situ. We placed DTS fiber-optic cables combined with a heating wire in direct contact with aquifer sediments in a laboratory scale groundwater flow simulator. Using this setup, we empirically determined the relationship between ΔT, the temperature difference by constant and uniform heating of the DTS cable and the background temperature of the groundwater system, and horizontal groundwater flow velocity. Second, we simulated the observed temperature response of the system using a plan-view heat transfer flow model to calibrate for the thermal properties of the sediment and to optimize cable setup for sensitivity to variation in groundwater flow velocities. Additionally, we derived an analytical solution based on the heat flow equation that can be used to explicitly calculate flow velocity from measured ΔT for this specific AH-DTS cable setup. We expect that this equation, after calibration for cable constitution, is valid for estimating groundwater flow velocity based on absolute temperature differences measured in field applications using this cable setup.

AB - Active Heating-Distributed Temperature Sensing (AH-DTS) has the potential to allow for the measurement of groundwater flow velocities in situ. We placed DTS fiber-optic cables combined with a heating wire in direct contact with aquifer sediments in a laboratory scale groundwater flow simulator. Using this setup, we empirically determined the relationship between ΔT, the temperature difference by constant and uniform heating of the DTS cable and the background temperature of the groundwater system, and horizontal groundwater flow velocity. Second, we simulated the observed temperature response of the system using a plan-view heat transfer flow model to calibrate for the thermal properties of the sediment and to optimize cable setup for sensitivity to variation in groundwater flow velocities. Additionally, we derived an analytical solution based on the heat flow equation that can be used to explicitly calculate flow velocity from measured ΔT for this specific AH-DTS cable setup. We expect that this equation, after calibration for cable constitution, is valid for estimating groundwater flow velocity based on absolute temperature differences measured in field applications using this cable setup.

KW - Distributed temperature sensing

KW - Groundwater monitoring

KW - Groundwater velocities

U2 - 10.3390/w11081619

DO - 10.3390/w11081619

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - Water

JF - Water

SN - 2073-4441

IS - 8

M1 - 1619

ER -