Determining flower colors from images using artificial intelligence

Ron Wehrens*, Manya Afonso, Hubert Fonteijn, Joao Paulo, Gerrit Polder, Marcel Rijsbergen, Gerard van Hameren, Raoul Haegens, Mary van den Helder, Henk Zwinkels

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Flower color is one of the most important traits in horticulture, and is one of the characteristics recorded to describe new varieties. In this paper, we examine four large real-world databases of roses and gerberas containing both images and color descriptions, and use state-of-the-art methods to automatically extract color descriptions from the images. Both Deep Learning and methods based on color histograms lead to success rates of approximately 85%. Deep learning has the advantage that no preprocessing is necessary—the more traditional methods lead to additional insight in the final color classification.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6
Number of pages13
Early online date14 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • Color histograms
  • Deep learning
  • Ornamentals
  • Plant variety testing
  • Random forests


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