Determination of brominated flame retardants, with emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples - a review

A. Covaci, S. Voorspoels, J. de Boer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    341 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Analytical methods for the determination of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), with a special emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reviewed. A number of procedures, which can be applied to the analysis of PBDEs and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and in some cases for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), in environmental and human samples are described. Because several BFRs, such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), BDE 209 and, to some extent, HBCD, may require a different approach, specific advice on their analysis is given separately when needed. Sample pretreatment, extraction, cleanup and fractionation, injection techniques, chromatographic separation, detection methods, quality control and method validation are discussed. For each topic, an overview is given of the current status of the field and recommendations for an appropriate analytical approach are presented.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)735-756
    JournalEnvironment International
    Volume29
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2003

    Keywords

    • human adipose-tissue
    • multidimensional gas-chromatography
    • persistent organic pollutants
    • resolution mass-spectrometry
    • salmon salmo-salar
    • polychlorinated-biphenyls
    • sewage-sludge
    • biological samples
    • blue mussels
    • organochlorine compounds

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