Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements

Amer J. Al-Malahmeh, Abdul Alajlouni, Jia Ning, Sebas Wesseling, Jacques Vervoort, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312μg kg-1 body weight (bw) for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 1.5 to 631μg kg-1 bw when adding up the alkenylbenzene levels assuming equal potency, and to 0.4 to 295μg kg-1 bw when expressed in safrole equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). The margin of exposure approach (MOE) was used to evaluate the potential risks. Independent of the method used for the intake estimate, the MOE values obtained were generally lower than 10000 indicating a priority for risk management. When taking into account that PFS may be used for shorter periods of time and using Haber's rule to correct for shorter than lifetime exposure it was shown that limiting exposure to only 1 or 2weeks would result in MOE values that would be, with the presently determined levels of alkenylbenzenes and proposed uses of the PFS, of low priority for risk management (MOE > 10000). It is concluded that the results of the present paper reveal that nutmeg-based PFS consumption following recommendations for daily intake especially for longer periods of time raise a concern.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1254-1264
JournalJournal of Applied Toxicology
Volume37
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Myristica fragrans
Dietary Supplements
Risk assessment
Body Weight
Risk Management
Risk management
Safrole
Poisons

Keywords

  • Alkenylbenzenes
  • Combined risk assessment
  • Margin of exposure (MOE)
  • Nutmeg-based PFS
  • Plant food supplement (PFS)
  • Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)

Cite this

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title = "Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements",
abstract = "A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312μg kg-1 body weight (bw) for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 1.5 to 631μg kg-1 bw when adding up the alkenylbenzene levels assuming equal potency, and to 0.4 to 295μg kg-1 bw when expressed in safrole equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). The margin of exposure approach (MOE) was used to evaluate the potential risks. Independent of the method used for the intake estimate, the MOE values obtained were generally lower than 10000 indicating a priority for risk management. When taking into account that PFS may be used for shorter periods of time and using Haber's rule to correct for shorter than lifetime exposure it was shown that limiting exposure to only 1 or 2weeks would result in MOE values that would be, with the presently determined levels of alkenylbenzenes and proposed uses of the PFS, of low priority for risk management (MOE > 10000). It is concluded that the results of the present paper reveal that nutmeg-based PFS consumption following recommendations for daily intake especially for longer periods of time raise a concern.",
keywords = "Alkenylbenzenes, Combined risk assessment, Margin of exposure (MOE), Nutmeg-based PFS, Plant food supplement (PFS), Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)",
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Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements. / Al-Malahmeh, Amer J.; Alajlouni, Abdul; Ning, Jia; Wesseling, Sebas; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

In: Journal of Applied Toxicology, Vol. 37, No. 10, 2017, p. 1254-1264.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements

AU - Al-Malahmeh, Amer J.

AU - Alajlouni, Abdul

AU - Ning, Jia

AU - Wesseling, Sebas

AU - Vervoort, Jacques

AU - Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312μg kg-1 body weight (bw) for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 1.5 to 631μg kg-1 bw when adding up the alkenylbenzene levels assuming equal potency, and to 0.4 to 295μg kg-1 bw when expressed in safrole equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). The margin of exposure approach (MOE) was used to evaluate the potential risks. Independent of the method used for the intake estimate, the MOE values obtained were generally lower than 10000 indicating a priority for risk management. When taking into account that PFS may be used for shorter periods of time and using Haber's rule to correct for shorter than lifetime exposure it was shown that limiting exposure to only 1 or 2weeks would result in MOE values that would be, with the presently determined levels of alkenylbenzenes and proposed uses of the PFS, of low priority for risk management (MOE > 10000). It is concluded that the results of the present paper reveal that nutmeg-based PFS consumption following recommendations for daily intake especially for longer periods of time raise a concern.

AB - A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312μg kg-1 body weight (bw) for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 1.5 to 631μg kg-1 bw when adding up the alkenylbenzene levels assuming equal potency, and to 0.4 to 295μg kg-1 bw when expressed in safrole equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). The margin of exposure approach (MOE) was used to evaluate the potential risks. Independent of the method used for the intake estimate, the MOE values obtained were generally lower than 10000 indicating a priority for risk management. When taking into account that PFS may be used for shorter periods of time and using Haber's rule to correct for shorter than lifetime exposure it was shown that limiting exposure to only 1 or 2weeks would result in MOE values that would be, with the presently determined levels of alkenylbenzenes and proposed uses of the PFS, of low priority for risk management (MOE > 10000). It is concluded that the results of the present paper reveal that nutmeg-based PFS consumption following recommendations for daily intake especially for longer periods of time raise a concern.

KW - Alkenylbenzenes

KW - Combined risk assessment

KW - Margin of exposure (MOE)

KW - Nutmeg-based PFS

KW - Plant food supplement (PFS)

KW - Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)

U2 - 10.1002/jat.3491

DO - 10.1002/jat.3491

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 1254

EP - 1264

JO - Journal of Applied Toxicology

JF - Journal of Applied Toxicology

SN - 0260-437X

IS - 10

ER -