Design: From 16-20 week of pregnancy, 366 mothers of the neonates had participated in the community-based study to investigate the effect of weekly supplementation during pregnancy with iron and vitamin A on infant growth. Women from five villages were allocated randomly to receive two tablets each containing 60 mg iron as ferrous sulphate and 250 ?g folic acid (n=121) or two tablets each containing 2400 RE vitamin A in addition to the same amount of ferrous sulphate and folic acid (n=122). A third ('daily') group (n=123) participating in the national iron supplementation programme was recruited from four neighbouring villages. Results: Neonatal weight and length did not differ between the two weekly groups and between the weekly iron group and the 'daily' group. Iron and vitamin A status during pregnancy did not influence neonatal weight and length significantly. Boys were 100 g heavier and 0.53 cm longer than girls (P<0.05). First born neonates were lighter (P<0.01) and tended to be shorter (P=0.070) than neonates of higher birth order. Maternal age and education as well as other socioeconomic determinants were not associated with neonatal weight and length. Neonatal weight was 32␎xplained by gestational age, maternal weight, postnatal measurement, gender and parity, while neonatal length was 28␎xplained by gestational age, maternal weight, postnatal measurement, gender and maternal height. Conclusions: Gestational age, maternal weight at second trimester and infant gender were the main predictors of neonatal weight and length.