Detection of ochratoxin A in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor

Varvara Pagkali, Panagiota S. Petrou, Alexandros Salapatas, Eleni Makarona, Jeroen Peters, Willem Haasnoot, Gerhard Jobst, Anastasios Economou, Konstantinos Misiakos, Ioannis Raptis, Sotirios E. Kakabakos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


An optical biosensor for label-free detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer samples is presented. The biosensor consists of an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) monolithically integrated along with their respective broad-band silicon light sources on the same Si chip (37mm2). The chip was transformed to biosensor by functionalizing the MZIs sensing arms with an OTA-ovalbumin conjugate. OTA determination was performed by pumping over the chip mixtures of calibrators or samples with anti-OTA antibody following a competitive immunoassay format. An external miniaturized spectrometer was employed to continuously record the transmission spectra of each interferometer. Spectral shifts obtained due to immunoreaction were transformed to phase shifts through Discrete Fourier Transform. The assay had a detection limit of 2.0ng/ml and a dynamic range 4.0-100ng/ml in beer samples, recoveries ranging from 90.6 to 116%, and intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 9% and 14%, respectively. The results obtained with the sensor using OTA-spiked beer samples spiked were in good agreement with those obtained by an ELISA developed using the same antibody. The good analytical performance of the biosensor and the small size of the proposed chip provide for the development of a portable instrument for point-of-need determinations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-83
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue numberPart A
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Beer
  • Label-free detection
  • Monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers
  • Ochratoxin A


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