Descriptive sensory profiling of double emulsions with gelled and non-gelled inner water phase

A.K.L. Oppermann, B. Piqueras-Fiszman, Kees de Graaf, E. Scholten, M. Stieger*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


The use of double emulsions (w1/o/w2) has been acknowledged as a promising strategy to reduce oil content in several food applications. Despite the potential of double emulsions for oil reduction, their sensory properties have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated sensory perception of double emulsions by descriptive sensory profiling using a trained panel (n = 11). Two sets of emulsions with either 30 or 50% dispersed phase fraction were studied. Each set differed in composition (gelled and non-gelled inner w1 phase, gelatin as gelling agent) and fat reduction level (30 to 50%), but was similar in oil droplet size and viscosity. Fat reduction level depended on the amount of water droplets entrapped inside the oil droplets. Emulsions were evaluated on nine attributes describing taste (T), mouth-feel (MF) and after-feel (AF) perception, including thickness (MF), creaminess (MF, AF), fattiness (MF, AF), and cohesiveness (MF). The replacement of oil by small water droplets w1 did not decrease the intensity of fat-related attributes. When inner w1 droplets were gelled, 47 wt.% of oil could be replaced while increasing the intensity of fat-related attributes. This indicates that the sensory perception of single and double emulsions with gelled and non-gelled w1 phase is mainly determined by the total oil droplet surface area. The composition of the inner water phase (gelled or not) also influences the sensory perception of double emulsions. We conclude that fat reduction up to 47 wt.% can be achieved in double emulsions while maintaining or enhancing fat-related sensory perception.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-223
JournalFood Research International
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Fat reduction
  • Lubrication properties
  • Multiple emulsions
  • Sensory perception


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