One new and one known species of Aulolaimus are described, viz. A. multipapillatus sp. n. from Israel and A. nannocephalus from Ukraine. Aulolaimus multipapillatus sp. n. is particularly characterised by a cuticle bearing ca 60 distinct longitudinal ridges, cuticle with distinct ornamentation on ventral body side anterior and posterior to vulva, 6-11 midventral sensilla anterior to cloaca, and spicules ca 25 ¿m long. Aulolaimus nannocephalus is redescribed on the base of both light and scanning electron microscopic observations on two populations from Ukraine. An emended diagnosis and a revised classification of the genus are proposed. The morphological variability and systematic position of Aulolaimus are discussed and a key to the species of the genus is provided.