Delay of Iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates

W.G. van Doorn, F.G. Celikel, C. Pak, H. Harkema

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    25 Citations (Scopus)


    It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or auxin inhibitors also did not change the time to senescence. Abscisic acid (ABA) hastened senescence, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) had no effect. Gibberellic acid (GA3) slightly delayed senescence in some experiments, but in other experiments it was without effect, and gibberellin inhibitors [ancymidol or 4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate (AMO-1618)] were ineffective as well. Salicylic acid (SA) also had no effect. Ethylene, auxins, GA3 and SA affected flower opening, therefore did reach the flower cells. Jasmonates delayed senescence by about 2.0 days. Similarly, cytokinins delayed senescence by about 1.52.0 days. Antagonists of the phosphatidylinositol signal transduction pathway (lithium), calcium channels (niguldipine and verapamil), calmodulin action [fluphenazine, trifluoroperazine, phenoxybenzamide and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W-7)] or protein kinase activity [1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine hydrochloride (H-7), N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (H-8) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride (H-9)] had no effect on senescence, indicating no role of a few common signal transduction pathways relating to hormone effects on senescence. The results indicate that tepal senescence in Iris cv. Blue Magic is not regulated by endogenous ethylene, auxin, gibberellins or SA. A role of ABA can at present not be excluded. The data suggest the hypothesis that cytokinins and jasmonates are among the natural regulators.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)105-120
    JournalPhysiologia Plantarum
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2013


    • cut carnation flowers
    • dependent protein-kinase
    • abscisic-acid
    • leaf senescence
    • gene-expression
    • ethylene biosynthesis
    • endogenous ethylene
    • plant senescence
    • petal senescence
    • nitric-oxide


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