Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size.

G. Tuncel, M.J.R. Nout, L. Brimer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these glycosides by endogenous and added enzymes in raw and blanched seeds of different particle sizes. A hot water blanching treatment of 20 min at 100°C was adequate to inactivate endogenous β-glucosidase activity in raw bitter apricot seeds. In addition to raw seeds, such blanched seeds were used as an experimental model to investigate the effect of particle size and added individual enzyme preparations on the degradation of cyanogenic glycosides. Finely ground (< 2 mm) fractions showed increased glycoside degradation, supporting the hypothesis that particle size is a limiting factor for enzymic degradation. Our hypothesis that added pectinase activity would enhance degradation of glycosides by improving enzyme-substrate contact could not be affirmed. Furthermore, it was observed that substantial enzyme addition (β-glucosidase) is required to fully degrade residual glycoside levels in raw and/or blanched seeds.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-69
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume63
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1998

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cyanogenic glycosides
Prunus armeniaca
apricots
Particle Size
Seed
particle size
Seeds
Hot Temperature
Particle size
Heat treatment
heat treatment
Glycosides
Degradation
degradation
Enzymes
enzymes
seeds
glycosides
Glucosidases
glucosidases

Cite this

@article{f23bc88cd2224948b05a582905a433ff,
title = "Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size.",
abstract = "Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these glycosides by endogenous and added enzymes in raw and blanched seeds of different particle sizes. A hot water blanching treatment of 20 min at 100°C was adequate to inactivate endogenous β-glucosidase activity in raw bitter apricot seeds. In addition to raw seeds, such blanched seeds were used as an experimental model to investigate the effect of particle size and added individual enzyme preparations on the degradation of cyanogenic glycosides. Finely ground (< 2 mm) fractions showed increased glycoside degradation, supporting the hypothesis that particle size is a limiting factor for enzymic degradation. Our hypothesis that added pectinase activity would enhance degradation of glycosides by improving enzyme-substrate contact could not be affirmed. Furthermore, it was observed that substantial enzyme addition (β-glucosidase) is required to fully degrade residual glycoside levels in raw and/or blanched seeds.",
author = "G. Tuncel and M.J.R. Nout and L. Brimer",
year = "1998",
doi = "10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00217-3",
language = "English",
volume = "63",
pages = "65--69",
journal = "Food Chemistry",
issn = "0308-8146",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size. / Tuncel, G.; Nout, M.J.R.; Brimer, L.

In: Food Chemistry, Vol. 63, 1998, p. 65-69.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size.

AU - Tuncel, G.

AU - Nout, M.J.R.

AU - Brimer, L.

PY - 1998

Y1 - 1998

N2 - Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these glycosides by endogenous and added enzymes in raw and blanched seeds of different particle sizes. A hot water blanching treatment of 20 min at 100°C was adequate to inactivate endogenous β-glucosidase activity in raw bitter apricot seeds. In addition to raw seeds, such blanched seeds were used as an experimental model to investigate the effect of particle size and added individual enzyme preparations on the degradation of cyanogenic glycosides. Finely ground (< 2 mm) fractions showed increased glycoside degradation, supporting the hypothesis that particle size is a limiting factor for enzymic degradation. Our hypothesis that added pectinase activity would enhance degradation of glycosides by improving enzyme-substrate contact could not be affirmed. Furthermore, it was observed that substantial enzyme addition (β-glucosidase) is required to fully degrade residual glycoside levels in raw and/or blanched seeds.

AB - Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these glycosides by endogenous and added enzymes in raw and blanched seeds of different particle sizes. A hot water blanching treatment of 20 min at 100°C was adequate to inactivate endogenous β-glucosidase activity in raw bitter apricot seeds. In addition to raw seeds, such blanched seeds were used as an experimental model to investigate the effect of particle size and added individual enzyme preparations on the degradation of cyanogenic glycosides. Finely ground (< 2 mm) fractions showed increased glycoside degradation, supporting the hypothesis that particle size is a limiting factor for enzymic degradation. Our hypothesis that added pectinase activity would enhance degradation of glycosides by improving enzyme-substrate contact could not be affirmed. Furthermore, it was observed that substantial enzyme addition (β-glucosidase) is required to fully degrade residual glycoside levels in raw and/or blanched seeds.

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DO - 10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00217-3

M3 - Article

VL - 63

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JF - Food Chemistry

SN - 0308-8146

ER -