Deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to provide an in-depth view of the transcriptome of red and white skeletal muscle of exercised and non-exercised rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with the specific objective to identify expressed genes and quantify the transcriptomic effects of swimming-induced exercise. Pubertal autumn-spawning seawater-raised female rainbow trout were rested (n = 10) or swum (n = 10) for 1176 km at 0.75 body-lengths per second in a 6,000-L swim-flume under reproductive conditions for 40 days. Red and white muscle RNA of exercised and non-exercised fish (4 lanes) was sequenced and resulted in 15–17 million reads per lane that, after de novo assembly, yielded 149,159 red and 118,572 white muscle contigs. Most contigs were annotated using an iterative homology search strategy against salmonid ESTs, the zebrafish Danio rerio genome and general Metazoan genes. When selecting for large contigs (>500 nucleotides), a number of novel rainbow trout gene sequences were identified in this study: 1,085 and 1,228 novel gene sequences for red and white muscle, respectively, which included a number of important molecules for skeletal muscle function. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that sustained swimming increased transcriptional activity in skeletal muscle and specifically an up-regulation of genes involved in muscle growth and developmental processes in white muscle. The unique collection of transcripts will contribute to our understanding of red and white muscle physiology, specifically during the long-term reproductive migration of salmonids.
- trout oncorhynchus-mykiss
- profiling analysis
- androgen receptor
Palstra, A. P., Beltran, S., Burgerhout, E., Brittijn, S. A., Magnoni, L. J., Henkel, C. V., Jansen, A., Thillart, G. E. E. J. M., Spaink, H. P., & Planas, J. V. (2013). Deep RNA Sequencing of the Skeletal Muscle Transcriptome in Swimming Fish. PLoS ONE, 8(1), [e53171]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053171