Decomposition, N contribution and soil organic matter balances of crop residues and vermicompost in maize-based cropping systems in southwest Mexico

D. Flores Sanchez, A. Pastor, W.A.H. Rossing, M.J. Kropff, E.A. Lantinga

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Abstract

Soil fertility depletion is one of the main concerns of the farmers in the Costa Chica, Mexico. The current crop management exacerbates nutrient cycling unbalances and threatens the sustainability of the common maize production systems. It is necessary to supply the soil with organic sources. Field experiments were established in farmers’ fields to estimate the decomposition rate and N release of organic materials: aboveground and belowground plant residues, and vermicompost. Decomposition was monitored using the litterbag method, and decomposition patterns were fitted by means of a dynamic mono-component mineralization model. To calculate the effects of crop residues retention and vermicompost on OM balance, five scenarios were evaluated with farm DESIGN model. The decomposition rate was greater during the first 4 months. After that period the remaining dry matter proportion of aboveground residues varied between 45 and 67%. In case of root residues, the dry weight loss ranged between 20 and 47% after the first month. For both types of residues, N released within the first month was 37%, on average. At the end of the sampling period 9 months, the remaining dry matter proportion of aboveground and belowground residues ranged from 30 to 55%, whereas more than 80% of their total N was released. After 6.5 months only 35% of the vermicompost mass was decomposed, but about 65% of its N was mineralized. Besides, around 70% of the vermicompost N was released during the first 30 days. In fields with vermicompost maize was responsible for 70% of total N uptake, on average. The N balance was 93% higher than maize fields without vermicompost. In scenario with 30% of crop residue retention along with vermicompost, OM balance was 86% higher than under current management. Vermicompost can be regarded as an attractive amendment for both crop N supply and soil organic matter build-up.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)801-817
JournalJournal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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vermicomposts
crop residue
crop residues
cropping systems
soil organic matter
cropping practice
Mexico
maize
decomposition
corn
degradation
dry matter
crop
plant residue
nutrient cycling
soil fertility
production system
sustainability
farm
mineralization

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title = "Decomposition, N contribution and soil organic matter balances of crop residues and vermicompost in maize-based cropping systems in southwest Mexico",
abstract = "Soil fertility depletion is one of the main concerns of the farmers in the Costa Chica, Mexico. The current crop management exacerbates nutrient cycling unbalances and threatens the sustainability of the common maize production systems. It is necessary to supply the soil with organic sources. Field experiments were established in farmers’ fields to estimate the decomposition rate and N release of organic materials: aboveground and belowground plant residues, and vermicompost. Decomposition was monitored using the litterbag method, and decomposition patterns were fitted by means of a dynamic mono-component mineralization model. To calculate the effects of crop residues retention and vermicompost on OM balance, five scenarios were evaluated with farm DESIGN model. The decomposition rate was greater during the first 4 months. After that period the remaining dry matter proportion of aboveground residues varied between 45 and 67{\%}. In case of root residues, the dry weight loss ranged between 20 and 47{\%} after the first month. For both types of residues, N released within the first month was 37{\%}, on average. At the end of the sampling period 9 months, the remaining dry matter proportion of aboveground and belowground residues ranged from 30 to 55{\%}, whereas more than 80{\%} of their total N was released. After 6.5 months only 35{\%} of the vermicompost mass was decomposed, but about 65{\%} of its N was mineralized. Besides, around 70{\%} of the vermicompost N was released during the first 30 days. In fields with vermicompost maize was responsible for 70{\%} of total N uptake, on average. The N balance was 93{\%} higher than maize fields without vermicompost. In scenario with 30{\%} of crop residue retention along with vermicompost, OM balance was 86{\%} higher than under current management. Vermicompost can be regarded as an attractive amendment for both crop N supply and soil organic matter build-up.",
author = "{Flores Sanchez}, D. and A. Pastor and W.A.H. Rossing and M.J. Kropff and E.A. Lantinga",
year = "2016",
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language = "English",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Decomposition, N contribution and soil organic matter balances of crop residues and vermicompost in maize-based cropping systems in southwest Mexico

AU - Flores Sanchez, D.

AU - Pastor, A.

AU - Rossing, W.A.H.

AU - Kropff, M.J.

AU - Lantinga, E.A.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Soil fertility depletion is one of the main concerns of the farmers in the Costa Chica, Mexico. The current crop management exacerbates nutrient cycling unbalances and threatens the sustainability of the common maize production systems. It is necessary to supply the soil with organic sources. Field experiments were established in farmers’ fields to estimate the decomposition rate and N release of organic materials: aboveground and belowground plant residues, and vermicompost. Decomposition was monitored using the litterbag method, and decomposition patterns were fitted by means of a dynamic mono-component mineralization model. To calculate the effects of crop residues retention and vermicompost on OM balance, five scenarios were evaluated with farm DESIGN model. The decomposition rate was greater during the first 4 months. After that period the remaining dry matter proportion of aboveground residues varied between 45 and 67%. In case of root residues, the dry weight loss ranged between 20 and 47% after the first month. For both types of residues, N released within the first month was 37%, on average. At the end of the sampling period 9 months, the remaining dry matter proportion of aboveground and belowground residues ranged from 30 to 55%, whereas more than 80% of their total N was released. After 6.5 months only 35% of the vermicompost mass was decomposed, but about 65% of its N was mineralized. Besides, around 70% of the vermicompost N was released during the first 30 days. In fields with vermicompost maize was responsible for 70% of total N uptake, on average. The N balance was 93% higher than maize fields without vermicompost. In scenario with 30% of crop residue retention along with vermicompost, OM balance was 86% higher than under current management. Vermicompost can be regarded as an attractive amendment for both crop N supply and soil organic matter build-up.

AB - Soil fertility depletion is one of the main concerns of the farmers in the Costa Chica, Mexico. The current crop management exacerbates nutrient cycling unbalances and threatens the sustainability of the common maize production systems. It is necessary to supply the soil with organic sources. Field experiments were established in farmers’ fields to estimate the decomposition rate and N release of organic materials: aboveground and belowground plant residues, and vermicompost. Decomposition was monitored using the litterbag method, and decomposition patterns were fitted by means of a dynamic mono-component mineralization model. To calculate the effects of crop residues retention and vermicompost on OM balance, five scenarios were evaluated with farm DESIGN model. The decomposition rate was greater during the first 4 months. After that period the remaining dry matter proportion of aboveground residues varied between 45 and 67%. In case of root residues, the dry weight loss ranged between 20 and 47% after the first month. For both types of residues, N released within the first month was 37%, on average. At the end of the sampling period 9 months, the remaining dry matter proportion of aboveground and belowground residues ranged from 30 to 55%, whereas more than 80% of their total N was released. After 6.5 months only 35% of the vermicompost mass was decomposed, but about 65% of its N was mineralized. Besides, around 70% of the vermicompost N was released during the first 30 days. In fields with vermicompost maize was responsible for 70% of total N uptake, on average. The N balance was 93% higher than maize fields without vermicompost. In scenario with 30% of crop residue retention along with vermicompost, OM balance was 86% higher than under current management. Vermicompost can be regarded as an attractive amendment for both crop N supply and soil organic matter build-up.

U2 - 10.4067/S0718-95162016005000057

DO - 10.4067/S0718-95162016005000057

M3 - Article

VL - 16

SP - 801

EP - 817

JO - Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

JF - Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

SN - 0718-9516

IS - 3

ER -