De novo whole-genome assembly of Chrysanthemum makinoi, a key wild chrysanthemum

Natascha van Lieshout, Martijn van Kaauwen, Linda Kodde, Paul Arens*, Marinus J.M. Smulders, Richard G.F. Visser, Richard Finkers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Chrysanthemum is among the top 10 cut, potted, and perennial garden flowers in the world. Despite this, to date, only the genomes of two wild diploid chrysanthemums have been sequenced and assembled. Here, we present the most complete and contiguous chrysanthemum de novo assembly published so far, as well as a corresponding ab initio annotation. The cultivated hexaploid varieties are thought to originate from a hybrid of wild chrysanthemums, among which the diploid Chrysanthemum makinoi has been mentioned. Using a combination of Oxford Nanopore long reads, Pacific Biosciences long reads, Illumina short reads, Dovetail sequences, and a genetic map, we assembled 3.1 Gb of its sequence into nine pseudochromosomes, with an N50 of 330 Mb and a BUSCO complete score of 92.1%. Our ab initio annotation pipeline predicted 95,074 genes and marked 80.0% of the genome as repetitive. This genome assembly of C. makinoi provides an important step forward in understanding the chrysanthemum genome, evolution, and history.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberjkab358
JournalG3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Annotation
  • Chrysanthemum
  • Chrysanthemum makinoi
  • Genome assembly
  • PRJEB44800
  • ERP128891


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