This paper presents data on carbon stocks of tropical tree species along a rainfall gradient. The data was generated from the Sesheke, Namwala, and Kabompo sites in Zambia. Though above-ground data was generated for all these three sites, we uprooted trees to determine below-ground biomass from the Sesheke site only. The vegetation was assessed in all three sites. The data includes tree diameter at breast height (DBH), total tree height, wood density, wood dry weight and root dry weight for large (≥ 5 cm DBH) and small (< 5 cm DBH) trees. We further presented Root-to-Shoot Ratios of uprooted trees. Data on the importance-value indices of various species for large and small trees are also determined. Below and above-ground carbon stocks of the surveyed tree species are presented per site. This data were used by Ngoma et al. (2018)  to develop above and below-ground biomass models and the reader is referred to this study for additional information, interpretation, and reflection on applying this data.