Current climate, isolation and history drive global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism

Brody Sandel*, Patrick Weigelt, Holger Kreft, Gunnar Keppel, Masha T. van der Sande, Sam Levin, Stephen Smith, Dylan Craven, Tiffany M. Knight

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Aim: We mapped global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism (PE) to identify hotspots and test hypotheses about possible drivers. Specifically, we tested hypotheses related to current climate, geographical characteristics and historical conditions and assessed their relative importance in shaping PE patterns. Location: Global. Time period: We used the present distribution of trees, and predictors covering conditions from the mid-Miocene to present. Major taxa studied: All seed-bearing trees. Methods: We compiled distributions for 58,542 tree species across 463 regions worldwide, matched these to a recent phylogeny of seed plants and calculated PE for each region. We used a suite of predictor variables describing current climate (e.g., mean annual temperature), geographical characteristics (e.g., isolation) and historical conditions (e.g., tree cover at the Last Glacial Maximum) in a spatial regression model to explain variation in PE. Results: Tree PE was highest on islands, and was higher closer to the equator. All three groups of predictor variables contributed substantially to the PE pattern. Isolation and topographic heterogeneity promoted high PE, as did high current tree cover. Among mainland regions, temperature seasonality was strongly negatively related to PE, while mean annual temperature was positively related to PE on islands. Some relationships differed among the major floristic regions. For example, tree cover at the Last Glacial Maximum was a positive predictor of PE in the Palaeotropics, while tree cover at the Miocene was a negative predictor of PE in the Neotropics. Main conclusions: Globally, PE can be explained by a combination of geographical, historical and current factors. Some geographical variables appear to be key predictors of PE. However, the impact of historic and current climate variables differs considerably among the major floristic regions, reflecting their unique histories. Hence, the current distribution of trees is the result of globally relevant geographical drivers and regional climatic histories.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4-15
JournalGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
Volume29
Issue number1
Early online date2 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

Fingerprint

endemism
indigenous species
phylogenetics
climate
history
phylogeny
geographical characteristics
Last Glacial Maximum
floristics
Miocene
seed
temperature
Spermatophytina
seasonality

Keywords

  • biogeography
  • climate stability
  • historical contingency
  • islands
  • isolation
  • phylogenetic endemism
  • trees

Cite this

Sandel, Brody ; Weigelt, Patrick ; Kreft, Holger ; Keppel, Gunnar ; van der Sande, Masha T. ; Levin, Sam ; Smith, Stephen ; Craven, Dylan ; Knight, Tiffany M. / Current climate, isolation and history drive global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism. In: Global Ecology and Biogeography. 2020 ; Vol. 29, No. 1. pp. 4-15.
@article{f67eee26ff7a4ddebb8d1a81d5df74bb,
title = "Current climate, isolation and history drive global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism",
abstract = "Aim: We mapped global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism (PE) to identify hotspots and test hypotheses about possible drivers. Specifically, we tested hypotheses related to current climate, geographical characteristics and historical conditions and assessed their relative importance in shaping PE patterns. Location: Global. Time period: We used the present distribution of trees, and predictors covering conditions from the mid-Miocene to present. Major taxa studied: All seed-bearing trees. Methods: We compiled distributions for 58,542 tree species across 463 regions worldwide, matched these to a recent phylogeny of seed plants and calculated PE for each region. We used a suite of predictor variables describing current climate (e.g., mean annual temperature), geographical characteristics (e.g., isolation) and historical conditions (e.g., tree cover at the Last Glacial Maximum) in a spatial regression model to explain variation in PE. Results: Tree PE was highest on islands, and was higher closer to the equator. All three groups of predictor variables contributed substantially to the PE pattern. Isolation and topographic heterogeneity promoted high PE, as did high current tree cover. Among mainland regions, temperature seasonality was strongly negatively related to PE, while mean annual temperature was positively related to PE on islands. Some relationships differed among the major floristic regions. For example, tree cover at the Last Glacial Maximum was a positive predictor of PE in the Palaeotropics, while tree cover at the Miocene was a negative predictor of PE in the Neotropics. Main conclusions: Globally, PE can be explained by a combination of geographical, historical and current factors. Some geographical variables appear to be key predictors of PE. However, the impact of historic and current climate variables differs considerably among the major floristic regions, reflecting their unique histories. Hence, the current distribution of trees is the result of globally relevant geographical drivers and regional climatic histories.",
keywords = "biogeography, climate stability, historical contingency, islands, isolation, phylogenetic endemism, trees",
author = "Brody Sandel and Patrick Weigelt and Holger Kreft and Gunnar Keppel and {van der Sande}, {Masha T.} and Sam Levin and Stephen Smith and Dylan Craven and Knight, {Tiffany M.}",
year = "2020",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1111/geb.13001",
language = "English",
volume = "29",
pages = "4--15",
journal = "Global Ecology and Biogeography",
issn = "1466-822X",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "1",

}

Sandel, B, Weigelt, P, Kreft, H, Keppel, G, van der Sande, MT, Levin, S, Smith, S, Craven, D & Knight, TM 2020, 'Current climate, isolation and history drive global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism', Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 4-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13001

Current climate, isolation and history drive global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism. / Sandel, Brody; Weigelt, Patrick; Kreft, Holger; Keppel, Gunnar; van der Sande, Masha T.; Levin, Sam; Smith, Stephen; Craven, Dylan; Knight, Tiffany M.

In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 29, No. 1, 01.2020, p. 4-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Current climate, isolation and history drive global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism

AU - Sandel, Brody

AU - Weigelt, Patrick

AU - Kreft, Holger

AU - Keppel, Gunnar

AU - van der Sande, Masha T.

AU - Levin, Sam

AU - Smith, Stephen

AU - Craven, Dylan

AU - Knight, Tiffany M.

PY - 2020/1

Y1 - 2020/1

N2 - Aim: We mapped global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism (PE) to identify hotspots and test hypotheses about possible drivers. Specifically, we tested hypotheses related to current climate, geographical characteristics and historical conditions and assessed their relative importance in shaping PE patterns. Location: Global. Time period: We used the present distribution of trees, and predictors covering conditions from the mid-Miocene to present. Major taxa studied: All seed-bearing trees. Methods: We compiled distributions for 58,542 tree species across 463 regions worldwide, matched these to a recent phylogeny of seed plants and calculated PE for each region. We used a suite of predictor variables describing current climate (e.g., mean annual temperature), geographical characteristics (e.g., isolation) and historical conditions (e.g., tree cover at the Last Glacial Maximum) in a spatial regression model to explain variation in PE. Results: Tree PE was highest on islands, and was higher closer to the equator. All three groups of predictor variables contributed substantially to the PE pattern. Isolation and topographic heterogeneity promoted high PE, as did high current tree cover. Among mainland regions, temperature seasonality was strongly negatively related to PE, while mean annual temperature was positively related to PE on islands. Some relationships differed among the major floristic regions. For example, tree cover at the Last Glacial Maximum was a positive predictor of PE in the Palaeotropics, while tree cover at the Miocene was a negative predictor of PE in the Neotropics. Main conclusions: Globally, PE can be explained by a combination of geographical, historical and current factors. Some geographical variables appear to be key predictors of PE. However, the impact of historic and current climate variables differs considerably among the major floristic regions, reflecting their unique histories. Hence, the current distribution of trees is the result of globally relevant geographical drivers and regional climatic histories.

AB - Aim: We mapped global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism (PE) to identify hotspots and test hypotheses about possible drivers. Specifically, we tested hypotheses related to current climate, geographical characteristics and historical conditions and assessed their relative importance in shaping PE patterns. Location: Global. Time period: We used the present distribution of trees, and predictors covering conditions from the mid-Miocene to present. Major taxa studied: All seed-bearing trees. Methods: We compiled distributions for 58,542 tree species across 463 regions worldwide, matched these to a recent phylogeny of seed plants and calculated PE for each region. We used a suite of predictor variables describing current climate (e.g., mean annual temperature), geographical characteristics (e.g., isolation) and historical conditions (e.g., tree cover at the Last Glacial Maximum) in a spatial regression model to explain variation in PE. Results: Tree PE was highest on islands, and was higher closer to the equator. All three groups of predictor variables contributed substantially to the PE pattern. Isolation and topographic heterogeneity promoted high PE, as did high current tree cover. Among mainland regions, temperature seasonality was strongly negatively related to PE, while mean annual temperature was positively related to PE on islands. Some relationships differed among the major floristic regions. For example, tree cover at the Last Glacial Maximum was a positive predictor of PE in the Palaeotropics, while tree cover at the Miocene was a negative predictor of PE in the Neotropics. Main conclusions: Globally, PE can be explained by a combination of geographical, historical and current factors. Some geographical variables appear to be key predictors of PE. However, the impact of historic and current climate variables differs considerably among the major floristic regions, reflecting their unique histories. Hence, the current distribution of trees is the result of globally relevant geographical drivers and regional climatic histories.

KW - biogeography

KW - climate stability

KW - historical contingency

KW - islands

KW - isolation

KW - phylogenetic endemism

KW - trees

U2 - 10.1111/geb.13001

DO - 10.1111/geb.13001

M3 - Article

VL - 29

SP - 4

EP - 15

JO - Global Ecology and Biogeography

JF - Global Ecology and Biogeography

SN - 1466-822X

IS - 1

ER -