We report the acute cumulative exposure to organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) and carbamates in the Dutch population and young children (1-6 years) via the diet. Residue data were derived from Dutch monitoring programmes performed during 2003-2005, and food consumption levels from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 1997/1998. The relative potency factor (RPF) approach was used to cumulate the exposure to OPs and carbamates using acephate and oxamyl as index compound respectively. The exposure was estimated using the probabilistic approach, including unit variability and processing effects. We demonstrate that about 3% of the composite samples analysed for OPs and 0.2% for carbamates contain combinations of these pesticides. The P99.9 of exposure to OPs and carbamates in the total Dutch population equals 23 and 0.64mug/kg BW/d respectively. For young children the corresponding exposure levels are 57 and 1.47mug/kg BW/d. When comparing the P99.9 of exposure with the ARfD, 50 and 9mug/kg BW/d for acephate and oxamyl respectively, there is only a possible health risk for young children. Spinach contributed most to the exposure to OPs in both age groups, followed by orange and mandarin. For carbamates apple (sauce) was the main product determining the exposure.