Culturing soles on ragworms: growth and feeding behaviour

S.S.W. Ende

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WUAcademic

Abstract

Ende, S.S.W. (2015). Culturing soles on ragworms: Growth and feeding behaviour. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

Despite the high market demand and intensive research efforts since the 1960s commercial culture of common sole (Solea solea L.) has been unsuccessful. Problems related to availability and price of suitable raw materials (invertebrates) and the low tolerance to crowding have hampered the development of intensive sole culture. Alternative extensive pond cultures systems are currently explored where common sole can graze on natural food. The general aim of this study was to get insight into which factors limit growth of common sole foraging on ragworms in ponds. The results did not show any nutritional effects that may hamper the growth of common sole. At non-limiting conditions, i.e. when fed chopped ragworms and when housed in sediment free tanks, common sole showed higher food intake, higher growth rates and higher nutrient utilization efficiencies than when fed mussels or a formulated diet. The results however suggest that growth in a pond with ragworms was limited by reduced foraging capabilities of common sole. To explore this hypothesis, the effect of prey size, predator size and prey density were tested. Overall, intake of buried ragworms was reduced by more than half in contrast to intake of unburied ragworms. Intake of buried ragworms was reduced regardless of ragworm size or common sole size. Increasing ragworm density only resulted in satiation intake values in smaller common sole. Our results additionally indicate that the presence of common sole hampers ragworm performance in a pond. Ragworms reduced their feeding activities when receiving water from tanks which contained common sole and ragworms, i.e. when common sole could graze on ragworms. Results from this PhD study suggest that the growth of common sole in ponds is not limited by nutritional but by their foraging abilities. However, the results of this study are too incomplete to fully predict growth performance of common sole in a pond. Factors such as temperature, oxygen supply or feeding activity need to be investigated to make comprehensive growth predictions.

 

LanguageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Verreth, Johan, Promotor
  • Schrama, Johan, Co-promotor
Award date16 Nov 2015
Place of PublicationWageningen
Publisher
Print ISBNs9789462575622
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

feeding behavior
foraging
pond culture
Solea solea
natural foods
nutrient utilization
satiety
mussels
raw materials
food intake
growth performance
Netherlands
invertebrates
markets
predators
oxygen
sediments
prediction
diet
temperature

Keywords

  • solea
  • soleidae
  • farmed fish
  • feed intake
  • growth
  • prey
  • helminths
  • foraging
  • feeding behaviour
  • performance
  • pond culture
  • aquaculture

Cite this

Ende, S. S. W. (2015). Culturing soles on ragworms: growth and feeding behaviour. Wageningen: Wageningen University.
Ende, S.S.W.. / Culturing soles on ragworms: growth and feeding behaviour. Wageningen : Wageningen University, 2015. 128 p.
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abstract = "Ende, S.S.W. (2015). Culturing soles on ragworms: Growth and feeding behaviour. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Despite the high market demand and intensive research efforts since the 1960s commercial culture of common sole (Solea solea L.) has been unsuccessful. Problems related to availability and price of suitable raw materials (invertebrates) and the low tolerance to crowding have hampered the development of intensive sole culture. Alternative extensive pond cultures systems are currently explored where common sole can graze on natural food. The general aim of this study was to get insight into which factors limit growth of common sole foraging on ragworms in ponds. The results did not show any nutritional effects that may hamper the growth of common sole. At non-limiting conditions, i.e. when fed chopped ragworms and when housed in sediment free tanks, common sole showed higher food intake, higher growth rates and higher nutrient utilization efficiencies than when fed mussels or a formulated diet. The results however suggest that growth in a pond with ragworms was limited by reduced foraging capabilities of common sole. To explore this hypothesis, the effect of prey size, predator size and prey density were tested. Overall, intake of buried ragworms was reduced by more than half in contrast to intake of unburied ragworms. Intake of buried ragworms was reduced regardless of ragworm size or common sole size. Increasing ragworm density only resulted in satiation intake values in smaller common sole. Our results additionally indicate that the presence of common sole hampers ragworm performance in a pond. Ragworms reduced their feeding activities when receiving water from tanks which contained common sole and ragworms, i.e. when common sole could graze on ragworms. Results from this PhD study suggest that the growth of common sole in ponds is not limited by nutritional but by their foraging abilities. However, the results of this study are too incomplete to fully predict growth performance of common sole in a pond. Factors such as temperature, oxygen supply or feeding activity need to be investigated to make comprehensive growth predictions.  ",
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Ende, SSW 2015, 'Culturing soles on ragworms: growth and feeding behaviour', Doctor of Philosophy, Wageningen University, Wageningen.

Culturing soles on ragworms: growth and feeding behaviour. / Ende, S.S.W.

Wageningen : Wageningen University, 2015. 128 p.

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WUAcademic

TY - THES

T1 - Culturing soles on ragworms: growth and feeding behaviour

AU - Ende, S.S.W.

N1 - WU thesis 6206

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Ende, S.S.W. (2015). Culturing soles on ragworms: Growth and feeding behaviour. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Despite the high market demand and intensive research efforts since the 1960s commercial culture of common sole (Solea solea L.) has been unsuccessful. Problems related to availability and price of suitable raw materials (invertebrates) and the low tolerance to crowding have hampered the development of intensive sole culture. Alternative extensive pond cultures systems are currently explored where common sole can graze on natural food. The general aim of this study was to get insight into which factors limit growth of common sole foraging on ragworms in ponds. The results did not show any nutritional effects that may hamper the growth of common sole. At non-limiting conditions, i.e. when fed chopped ragworms and when housed in sediment free tanks, common sole showed higher food intake, higher growth rates and higher nutrient utilization efficiencies than when fed mussels or a formulated diet. The results however suggest that growth in a pond with ragworms was limited by reduced foraging capabilities of common sole. To explore this hypothesis, the effect of prey size, predator size and prey density were tested. Overall, intake of buried ragworms was reduced by more than half in contrast to intake of unburied ragworms. Intake of buried ragworms was reduced regardless of ragworm size or common sole size. Increasing ragworm density only resulted in satiation intake values in smaller common sole. Our results additionally indicate that the presence of common sole hampers ragworm performance in a pond. Ragworms reduced their feeding activities when receiving water from tanks which contained common sole and ragworms, i.e. when common sole could graze on ragworms. Results from this PhD study suggest that the growth of common sole in ponds is not limited by nutritional but by their foraging abilities. However, the results of this study are too incomplete to fully predict growth performance of common sole in a pond. Factors such as temperature, oxygen supply or feeding activity need to be investigated to make comprehensive growth predictions.  

AB - Ende, S.S.W. (2015). Culturing soles on ragworms: Growth and feeding behaviour. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Despite the high market demand and intensive research efforts since the 1960s commercial culture of common sole (Solea solea L.) has been unsuccessful. Problems related to availability and price of suitable raw materials (invertebrates) and the low tolerance to crowding have hampered the development of intensive sole culture. Alternative extensive pond cultures systems are currently explored where common sole can graze on natural food. The general aim of this study was to get insight into which factors limit growth of common sole foraging on ragworms in ponds. The results did not show any nutritional effects that may hamper the growth of common sole. At non-limiting conditions, i.e. when fed chopped ragworms and when housed in sediment free tanks, common sole showed higher food intake, higher growth rates and higher nutrient utilization efficiencies than when fed mussels or a formulated diet. The results however suggest that growth in a pond with ragworms was limited by reduced foraging capabilities of common sole. To explore this hypothesis, the effect of prey size, predator size and prey density were tested. Overall, intake of buried ragworms was reduced by more than half in contrast to intake of unburied ragworms. Intake of buried ragworms was reduced regardless of ragworm size or common sole size. Increasing ragworm density only resulted in satiation intake values in smaller common sole. Our results additionally indicate that the presence of common sole hampers ragworm performance in a pond. Ragworms reduced their feeding activities when receiving water from tanks which contained common sole and ragworms, i.e. when common sole could graze on ragworms. Results from this PhD study suggest that the growth of common sole in ponds is not limited by nutritional but by their foraging abilities. However, the results of this study are too incomplete to fully predict growth performance of common sole in a pond. Factors such as temperature, oxygen supply or feeding activity need to be investigated to make comprehensive growth predictions.  

KW - solea

KW - soleidae

KW - kweekvis

KW - voeropname

KW - groei

KW - prooi

KW - wormen

KW - foerageren

KW - voedingsgedrag

KW - prestatieniveau

KW - vijverteelt

KW - aquacultuur

KW - solea

KW - soleidae

KW - farmed fish

KW - feed intake

KW - growth

KW - prey

KW - helminths

KW - foraging

KW - feeding behaviour

KW - performance

KW - pond culture

KW - aquaculture

M3 - internal PhD, WU

SN - 9789462575622

PB - Wageningen University

CY - Wageningen

ER -

Ende SSW. Culturing soles on ragworms: growth and feeding behaviour. Wageningen: Wageningen University, 2015. 128 p.