Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. Third Millennium Edition

G. Hofstede, G.J. Hofstede

Research output: Book/ReportBookAcademic


The world is a more dangerously divided place today than it was at the end of the Cold War. This despite the spread of free trade and the advent of digital technologies that afford a degree of global connectivity undreamed of by science fiction writers fifty years ago. What is it that continues to drive people apart when cooperation is so clearly in everyone's interest? Are we as a species doomed to perpetual misunderstanding and conflict? Find out in Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. A veritable atlas of cultural values, it is based on cross-cultural research conducted in seventy countries for more than thirty years. At the same time, it describes a revolutionary theory of cultural relativism and its applications in a range of professions. Fully updated and rewritten for the twenty-first century, this edition: * Reveals the unexamined rules by which people in different cultures think, feel, and act in business, family, schools, and political organizations * Explores how national cultures differ in the key areas of inequality, collectivism versus individualism, assertiveness versus modesty, tolerance for ambiguity, and deferment of gratification * Explains how organizational cultures differ from national cultures, and how they can--sometimes--be managed * Explains culture shock, ethnocentrism, stereotyping, differences in language and humor, and other aspects of intercultural dynamics
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationNew York
ISBN (Print)9780071439596
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • culture
  • organizations
  • communication
  • cross cultural studies
  • ethnic groups
  • races
  • international cooperation
  • individual characteristics
  • society
  • management
  • psychology

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