Culture de la pomme de terre : enjeux écologiques : Key issues in potato crop ecology

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    Abstract

    This paper mainly deals with the societal and scientific background of the ‘Planet’aspects of sustainability: improved use of resources and reduced emission of chemicals to the environment. The potato crop – mainly due to the higher value addition than other crops and its global role in food security is a very well researched crop. Its production ecology is well investigated yielding prominent crop growth models, its genome is unraveled now allowing the research into the function of the genes and molecular markers to assist breeding programs that – public and private – now develop varieties in almost each producing country. Now thousands of varieties [1] are listed for optimal adaptation and resistance to most prevailing pests and diseases assuring best use of land and reduced use of biocides. The development of DSS – again made possible because of the capital intensive cropping system – further enhances the optimal use of resources and reduction of emission of biocides. The potato seed tuber of which 2–4 t/ha are planted assure a rapid emergence and ground cover as to absorb all sunlight, consequently the crop grows faster than most other crop thus assuring a high land use efficiency. As the crop usually is grown in a cool part of the year (winter in Sahelian and Monsoon climates) its evaporation is low. Paired with its very high harvest index (75 percent of all dry matter end up in the edible part whereas it is only 50 percent in cereals) the crop has a very high water use efficiency, up to 4 times more efficient than an irrigated pre-monsoon rice crop [2]. Future developments such as marker assisted breeding and cisgenesis will further contribute to the efficient production of fresh potato and raw material for the processing industry. Mots clés: Agronomie; cisgenèse; modèle de croissance; performance de la culture; qualité de pomme de terre; sélection génétique; sélection assistée par marqueurs; système d’aide à la décision; système de fourniture des semences; viabilité
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)17-27
    JournalCahiers de nutrition et de diététique
    Volume45
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

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