Cryopreservation of avian semen

Henri Woelders*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Cryopreservation protocols for semen exist for bird species used in animal production, fancy and hobby species, and wild bird species. Freezing of bird oocytes or embryos is not possible. Cryopreservation of avian semen is used for preserving (genetic diversity of) endangered species or breeds. Freezing semen can also be used in the breeding industry for maintaining breeding lines, as a cost-effective alternative to holding live birds. Success and efficiency of cryopreservation of bird semen differs among species and breeds or selection lines. This chapter describes important variables of methods for collecting, diluting, cold storage, and freezing and thawing of bird semen, notably the medium composition, cryoprotectant used and its concentration, cooling rate, freezing method, and warming method. Media and methods are described for freezing semen using either glycerol or DMA as cryoprotectant, which both are known in chicken and a number of other bird species to render adequate post-thaw fertility rates.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols
EditorsWillem F. Wolkers, Hariëtte Oldenhof
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9781071607831
ISBN (Print)9781071607824
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Avian
  • Cryopreservation
  • Extender
  • Insemination
  • Poultry
  • Semen

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    Woelders, H. (2021). Cryopreservation of avian semen. In W. F. Wolkers, & H. Oldenhof (Eds.), Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols (pp. 379-399). (Methods in Molecular Biology; Vol. 2180). Humana Press Inc..