Cross-industry Collaborations in the Convergence Area of Functional Foods

S. Bornkessel, Stefanie Broring, S.W.F. Omta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Convergence processes are based on the activity of distinct industry sectors showing crossindustry
collaborations. The aim of this paper is to analyze cross-industry collaborations between
the food and pharmaceutical sectors in the convergence area of functional foods. Selected
companies from food (Nestlé/Danone) and pharmaceutical (Martek/Bayer HealthCare) sectors
are analyzed using the determinants of motivation and industrial scope. The analysis shows that
food companies are more active in cross-industry collaborations than pharmaceutical companies.
The latter are more active at the front-end of the value chain focusing on research and
development, and delivering their ingredients to food companies that due to their higher
expertise in consumer marketing launch the products. While the first cross-industry
collaborations were based on an exploration motivation, those that follow focus on exploitation.
Acquisitions and licensing agreements are dominant in inside-out and outside-in processes,
whereas strategic alliances and joint ventures are based on a coupled process between the food
and pharmaceutical sectors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-98
JournalInternational Food and Agribusiness Management Review
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • cross-industry collaborations
  • convergence
  • food industry
  • pharmaceutical industry


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