Critical Infrastructures: Reliability, Resilience and Wastage

William Hurst*, Kwabena Ebo Bennin, Ben Kotze, Tonderayi Mangara

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


By 2050, according to the UN medium forecast, 68.6% of the world’s population will live in cities. This growth will place a strain on critical infrastructure distribution networks, which already operate in a state that is complex and intertwined within society. In order to create a sustainable society, there needs to be a change in both societal behaviours (for example, reducing water, energy or food waste activities) and future use of smart technologies. The main challenges are that there is a limited aggregated understanding of current waste behaviours within critical infrastructure ecosystems, and a lack of technological solutions to address this. Therefore, this article reflects on theoretical and applied works concerning waste behaviours, the reliability/availability and resilience of critical infrastructures, and the use of advanced technologies for reducing waste. Articles in the Scopus digital library are considered in the investigation, with 51 papers selected by means of a systematic literature review, from which 38 strains, 86 barriers and 87 needs are identified, along with 60 methods of analysis. The focus of the work is primarily on behaviours, barriers and needs that create an excess or wastage.

Original languageEnglish
Article number37
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Critical infrastructure
  • Strain
  • Waste behaviour


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