Critical ethical issues in USA animal production : executive summary

Research output: Other contributionPamphlet


In 2014, the non-governmental organisation Wakker Dier in the Netherlands criticised ING for financing animal farms outside the European Union (EU). The NGO expressed its concern that local regulation would not sufficiently guarantee animal welfare standards up to the level guaranteed under EU regulations. Early 2015, LEI Wageningen UR was requested to identify potential detrimental activities in the United States of America (USA) animal husbandry sector due to gaps between EU and USA legislation and local animal welfare standards applied in the USA. Activities covered by ING clients in the USA and thus in scope of this research involve pigs, layers, broilers, veal calves, dairy cows and beef cows. The aim of this report is to provide a qualified comparison of animal welfare standards in the USA and the EU and to identify animal welfare and other potential ethical issues within animal farming in the USA and to identify critical issues on which ING is advised to take a strategic position.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages2
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Publication series

NameFactsheet / LEI Wageningen UR


  • animal welfare
  • animal ethics
  • animal husbandry
  • legislation
  • european union
  • usa
  • eu regulations
  • animal production
  • animal housing
  • dairy cattle
  • pigs
  • veal calves
  • beef cattle
  • broilers


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