Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) prevalence in associated populations of humans and small ruminants in The Gambia

Jeroen Bok, L. Hogerwerf, Eveline A. Germeraad, H.I.J. Roest, Tisbeh Faye-Joof, M. Jeng, D. Nwakanma, A. Secka, A. Stegeman, B. Goossens, Rita Wegmüller, M.T. van der Sande, W. Hoek, A. Secka

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Abstract

Objectives To simultaneously estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) among adults and small ruminants, and C. burnetii shedding prevalence among small ruminants in households in the Kiang West district of The Gambia; and to assess associated risk factors. Methods Sera of 599 adults and 615 small ruminants from 125 compounds within 12 villages were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using ELISA. Vaginal swabs and milk samples of 155 small ruminants were tested using PCR to investigate shedding of C. burnetii. Results 3.8% to 9.7% of adults, depending on ELISA test cutoff, and 24.9% of small ruminants in Kiang West were seropositive. Having at least one seropositive animal in one's compound was a risk factor for human seropositivity (OR 3.35, 95% CI: 1.09-14.44). A grazing area within a village was a risk factor for seropositivity in small ruminants (OR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.26-3.50); others were having lambed (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.37-5.76), and older age of the animals (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.37-5.76 for 1-3 years and OR 5.84, 95% CI: 3.10-11.64 for >3 years). 57.4% of sampled small ruminants were shedding C. burnetii. Conclusion C. burnetii infection is endemic among both humans and small ruminants in this area of The Gambia. Human and animal exposure to C. burnetii were related at compound-level. Further research into the clinical relevance of C. burnetii infection in West Africa is needed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)323-331
JournalTropical Medicine and International Health
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Gambia
Q Fever
Ruminants
Coxiella burnetii
Population
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Western Africa
Antibodies
Milk
Polymerase Chain Reaction

Cite this

Bok, J., Hogerwerf, L., Germeraad, E. A., Roest, H. I. J., Faye-Joof, T., Jeng, M., ... Secka, A. (2017). Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) prevalence in associated populations of humans and small ruminants in The Gambia. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 22(3), 323-331. https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.12827
Bok, Jeroen ; Hogerwerf, L. ; Germeraad, Eveline A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh ; Jeng, M. ; Nwakanma, D. ; Secka, A. ; Stegeman, A. ; Goossens, B. ; Wegmüller, Rita ; van der Sande, M.T. ; Hoek, W. ; Secka, A. / Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) prevalence in associated populations of humans and small ruminants in The Gambia. In: Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2017 ; Vol. 22, No. 3. pp. 323-331.
@article{0a76e270e15a4443b82ececa675294f6,
title = "Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) prevalence in associated populations of humans and small ruminants in The Gambia",
abstract = "Objectives To simultaneously estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) among adults and small ruminants, and C. burnetii shedding prevalence among small ruminants in households in the Kiang West district of The Gambia; and to assess associated risk factors. Methods Sera of 599 adults and 615 small ruminants from 125 compounds within 12 villages were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using ELISA. Vaginal swabs and milk samples of 155 small ruminants were tested using PCR to investigate shedding of C. burnetii. Results 3.8{\%} to 9.7{\%} of adults, depending on ELISA test cutoff, and 24.9{\%} of small ruminants in Kiang West were seropositive. Having at least one seropositive animal in one's compound was a risk factor for human seropositivity (OR 3.35, 95{\%} CI: 1.09-14.44). A grazing area within a village was a risk factor for seropositivity in small ruminants (OR 2.07, 95{\%} CI: 1.26-3.50); others were having lambed (OR 2.75, 95{\%} CI: 1.37-5.76), and older age of the animals (OR 2.75, 95{\%} CI: 1.37-5.76 for 1-3 years and OR 5.84, 95{\%} CI: 3.10-11.64 for >3 years). 57.4{\%} of sampled small ruminants were shedding C. burnetii. Conclusion C. burnetii infection is endemic among both humans and small ruminants in this area of The Gambia. Human and animal exposure to C. burnetii were related at compound-level. Further research into the clinical relevance of C. burnetii infection in West Africa is needed.",
author = "Jeroen Bok and L. Hogerwerf and Germeraad, {Eveline A.} and H.I.J. Roest and Tisbeh Faye-Joof and M. Jeng and D. Nwakanma and A. Secka and A. Stegeman and B. Goossens and Rita Wegm{\"u}ller and {van der Sande}, M.T. and W. Hoek and A. Secka",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1111/tmi.12827",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "323--331",
journal = "Tropical Medicine and International Health",
issn = "1360-2276",
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Bok, J, Hogerwerf, L, Germeraad, EA, Roest, HIJ, Faye-Joof, T, Jeng, M, Nwakanma, D, Secka, A, Stegeman, A, Goossens, B, Wegmüller, R, van der Sande, MT, Hoek, W & Secka, A 2017, 'Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) prevalence in associated populations of humans and small ruminants in The Gambia', Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 323-331. https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.12827

Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) prevalence in associated populations of humans and small ruminants in The Gambia. / Bok, Jeroen; Hogerwerf, L.; Germeraad, Eveline A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh; Jeng, M.; Nwakanma, D.; Secka, A.; Stegeman, A.; Goossens, B.; Wegmüller, Rita; van der Sande, M.T.; Hoek, W.; Secka, A.

In: Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2017, p. 323-331.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) prevalence in associated populations of humans and small ruminants in The Gambia

AU - Bok, Jeroen

AU - Hogerwerf, L.

AU - Germeraad, Eveline A.

AU - Roest, H.I.J.

AU - Faye-Joof, Tisbeh

AU - Jeng, M.

AU - Nwakanma, D.

AU - Secka, A.

AU - Stegeman, A.

AU - Goossens, B.

AU - Wegmüller, Rita

AU - van der Sande, M.T.

AU - Hoek, W.

AU - Secka, A.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Objectives To simultaneously estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) among adults and small ruminants, and C. burnetii shedding prevalence among small ruminants in households in the Kiang West district of The Gambia; and to assess associated risk factors. Methods Sera of 599 adults and 615 small ruminants from 125 compounds within 12 villages were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using ELISA. Vaginal swabs and milk samples of 155 small ruminants were tested using PCR to investigate shedding of C. burnetii. Results 3.8% to 9.7% of adults, depending on ELISA test cutoff, and 24.9% of small ruminants in Kiang West were seropositive. Having at least one seropositive animal in one's compound was a risk factor for human seropositivity (OR 3.35, 95% CI: 1.09-14.44). A grazing area within a village was a risk factor for seropositivity in small ruminants (OR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.26-3.50); others were having lambed (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.37-5.76), and older age of the animals (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.37-5.76 for 1-3 years and OR 5.84, 95% CI: 3.10-11.64 for >3 years). 57.4% of sampled small ruminants were shedding C. burnetii. Conclusion C. burnetii infection is endemic among both humans and small ruminants in this area of The Gambia. Human and animal exposure to C. burnetii were related at compound-level. Further research into the clinical relevance of C. burnetii infection in West Africa is needed.

AB - Objectives To simultaneously estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) among adults and small ruminants, and C. burnetii shedding prevalence among small ruminants in households in the Kiang West district of The Gambia; and to assess associated risk factors. Methods Sera of 599 adults and 615 small ruminants from 125 compounds within 12 villages were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using ELISA. Vaginal swabs and milk samples of 155 small ruminants were tested using PCR to investigate shedding of C. burnetii. Results 3.8% to 9.7% of adults, depending on ELISA test cutoff, and 24.9% of small ruminants in Kiang West were seropositive. Having at least one seropositive animal in one's compound was a risk factor for human seropositivity (OR 3.35, 95% CI: 1.09-14.44). A grazing area within a village was a risk factor for seropositivity in small ruminants (OR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.26-3.50); others were having lambed (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.37-5.76), and older age of the animals (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.37-5.76 for 1-3 years and OR 5.84, 95% CI: 3.10-11.64 for >3 years). 57.4% of sampled small ruminants were shedding C. burnetii. Conclusion C. burnetii infection is endemic among both humans and small ruminants in this area of The Gambia. Human and animal exposure to C. burnetii were related at compound-level. Further research into the clinical relevance of C. burnetii infection in West Africa is needed.

U2 - 10.1111/tmi.12827

DO - 10.1111/tmi.12827

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 323

EP - 331

JO - Tropical Medicine and International Health

JF - Tropical Medicine and International Health

SN - 1360-2276

IS - 3

ER -