Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. Although the prevalence of C. burnetii in cattle is much higher than in goats and sheep, infected cattle are rarely associated with human outbreaks. We investigated whether the immune response of humans differs after contact with C. burnetii isolates from different host origins or with different multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) genotypes. Cytokine responses were measured in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with 16 C. burnetii isolates with known MLVA genotype from goats, sheep, cattle, acute and chronic Q fever patients. Coxiella burnetii isolates originating from cattle induce significantly more IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-22 than the isolates from goats, sheep or chronic Q fever patients. Comparing the cytokine induction of the isolates based on their MVLA genotype did not reveal differences in response between the MLVA genotypes. The proinflammatory cytokine response induced in human PBMCs by C. burnetii isolates from cattle may explain the low incidence of human Q fever outbreaks caused by cattle. The cytokine profile of PBMCs stimulated with C. burnetii isolates from chronic Q fever patients resembles isolates from goats. Furthermore, cytokine responses seem to be depending on host origin than on MLVA genotype.