Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

An opinionated review

R. Van den Brom*, E. van Engelen, H.I.J. Roest, W. van der Hoek, P. Vellema

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-129
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Volume181
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2015

Fingerprint

Coxiella burnetii
Q fever
Q Fever
Ruminants
small ruminants
Goats
Sheep
goats
sheep
Parturition
childbirth
farms
abortion (animals)
risk perception
Stillbirth
fetal death
Zoonoses
Serologic Tests
immunologic techniques
zoonoses

Keywords

  • Coxiella burnetii
  • Goat
  • Q fever
  • Sheep
  • Zoonosis

Cite this

Van den Brom, R., van Engelen, E., Roest, H. I. J., van der Hoek, W., & Vellema, P. (2015). Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: An opinionated review. Veterinary Microbiology, 181(1-2), 119-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.07.011
Van den Brom, R. ; van Engelen, E. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; van der Hoek, W. ; Vellema, P. / Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats : An opinionated review. In: Veterinary Microbiology. 2015 ; Vol. 181, No. 1-2. pp. 119-129.
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Van den Brom, R, van Engelen, E, Roest, HIJ, van der Hoek, W & Vellema, P 2015, 'Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: An opinionated review', Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 181, no. 1-2, pp. 119-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.07.011

Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats : An opinionated review. / Van den Brom, R.; van Engelen, E.; Roest, H.I.J.; van der Hoek, W.; Vellema, P.

In: Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 181, No. 1-2, 14.12.2015, p. 119-129.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

T2 - An opinionated review

AU - Van den Brom, R.

AU - van Engelen, E.

AU - Roest, H.I.J.

AU - van der Hoek, W.

AU - Vellema, P.

PY - 2015/12/14

Y1 - 2015/12/14

N2 - Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

AB - Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

KW - Coxiella burnetii

KW - Goat

KW - Q fever

KW - Sheep

KW - Zoonosis

U2 - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.07.011

DO - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.07.011

M3 - Article

VL - 181

SP - 119

EP - 129

JO - Veterinary Microbiology

JF - Veterinary Microbiology

SN - 0378-1135

IS - 1-2

ER -

Van den Brom R, van Engelen E, Roest HIJ, van der Hoek W, Vellema P. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: An opinionated review. Veterinary Microbiology. 2015 Dec 14;181(1-2):119-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.07.011