Cover-weighted averaging of indicator values in vegetation analyses

J. Käfer, J.P.M. Witte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

57 Citations (Scopus)


Question: How should species cover be weighted when calculating average indicator values of vegetation releves? Location: The Netherlands. Method: Various weighting methods were statistically investigated with 188 releves from The Netherlands for which accurate groundwater levels were available. For each method the correlation between average Ellenberg indicator value for moisture and mean spring groundwater level was calculated. A permutation test on correlation coefficients revealed whether differences between methods were significant or not. Results: Optimization of a general weighting function did not produce a significantly higher correlation than disregarding cover and calculating the average as the arithmetical mean of indicator values. Giving a higher weight to species at both ends of the indicator scale and using indifferent species as indicators of mediocre conditions did improve the correlation significantly. Weighting species proportionate to their cover yielded a significantly lower correlation than the correlation obtained with the method that disregards cover. A significantly lower correlation was also established when taking into account the fact that cover is related to the growth strategy of species.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)647-652
JournalJournal of Vegetation Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • abundance values
  • transformation
  • moisture


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