Coupled carbon-water exchange of the Amazon rain forest. II. Comparison of predicted and observed seasonal exchange of energy, CO2, isoprene and ozone at a remote site in Rondônia

E. Simon, F.X. Meixner, U. Rummel, L.N. Ganzeveld, C. Ammann, J. Kesselmeier

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7 Citations (Scopus)


A one-dimensional multi-layer scheme describing the coupled exchange of energy and CO2, the emission of isoprene and the dry deposition of ozone is applied to a rain forest canopy in southwest Amazonia. The model was constrained using mean diel cycles of micrometeorological quantities observed during two periods in the wet and dry season 1999. Calculated net fluxes and concentration profiles for both seasonal periods are compared to observations made at two nearby towers. The modeled day- and nighttime thermal stratification of the canopy layer is consistent with observations in dense canopies. The observed and modeled net fluxes above and H2O and CO2 concentration profiles within the canopy show a good agreement. The predicted net carbon sink decreases from 2.5 t C ha-1 yr-1 for wet season conditions to 1 t C ha-1 yr-1 for dry season conditions, whereas observed and modeled midday Bowen ratio increases from 0.5 to 0.8. The evaluation results confirmed a seasonal variability of leaf physiological parameters, as already suggested in a companion study. The calculated midday canopy net flux of isoprene increased from 7.1 mg C m-2 h-1 during the wet season to 11.4 mg C m-2 h-1 during the late dry season. Applying a constant emission capacity in all canopy layers, resulted in a disagreement between observed and simulated profiles of isoprene concentrations, suggesting a smaller emission capacity of shade adapted leaves and deposition to the soil or leaf surfaces. Assuming a strong light acclimation of emission capacity, equivalent to a 66% reduction of the standard emission factor for leaves in the lower canopy, resulted in a better agreement of observed and modeled concentration profiles and a 30% reduction of the canopy net flux compared to model calculations with a constant emission factor. The mean calculated ozone flux for dry season conditions at noontime was ˜12 n mol m-2 s-1, agreeing well with observed values. The corresponding deposition velocity increased from 0.8 cm s-1 to >1.6 cm s-1 in the wet season, which can not be explained by increased stomatal uptake. Considering reasonable physiological changes in stomatal regulation, the modeled value was not larger than 1.05 cm s-1. Instead, the observed fluxes could be explained with the model by decreasing the cuticular resistance to ozone deposition from 5000 to 1000 s m-1
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-275
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • atmospheric boundary-layers
  • organic-compound emissions
  • dry deposition
  • tropical forest
  • monoterpene emission
  • growth-conditions
  • temperate forest
  • deciduous forest
  • gas-exchange
  • model


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