Costs and benefits to European shipping of ballast-water and hull-fouling treatment: Impacts of native and non-indigenous species

Jose A. Fernandes*, Lionel Santos, Thomas Vance, Tim Fileman, David Smith, John D.D. Bishop, Frédérique Viard, Ana M. Queirós, Gorka Merino, Erik Buisman, Melanie C. Austen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Maritime transport and shipping are impacted negatively by biofouling, which can result in increased fuel consumption. Thus, costs for fouling reduction can be considered an investment to reduce fuel consumption. Anti-fouling measures also reduce the rate of introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS). Further mitigation measures to reduce the transport of NIS within ballast water and sediments impose additional costs. The estimated operational cost of NIS mitigation measures may represent between 1.6% and 4% of the annual operational cost for a ship operating on European seas, with the higher proportional costs in small ships. However, fouling by NIS may affect fuel consumption more than fouling by native species due to differences in species' life-history traits and their resistance to antifouling coatings and pollution. Therefore, it is possible that the cost of NIS mitigation measures could be smaller than the cost from higher fuel consumption arising from fouling by NIS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-155
JournalMarine Policy
Volume64
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016

    Fingerprint

Keywords

  • Ballast water
  • Biofouling
  • Economic impact
  • Maritime
  • Mitigation measures
  • Native
  • Non-indigenous species
  • Shipping

Cite this

Fernandes, J. A., Santos, L., Vance, T., Fileman, T., Smith, D., Bishop, J. D. D., ... Austen, M. C. (2016). Costs and benefits to European shipping of ballast-water and hull-fouling treatment: Impacts of native and non-indigenous species. Marine Policy, 64, 148-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.11.015